Proof of Good Bid’a from Salaf Saliheen


Imam Abu Hanifa (Rah) , Founder of Hanafi Madhab and a Tabe’e says
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Quoted by Imam Ibn e Hajar Asqalini (rah),
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Hadrat Omer Farooq (ra) said after offering Tarawih that its a excellent Bida , Imam Abu Hanifa (Rah) said that its a proof from people of knowledge that Whoever invents a Bad action in Islam he will get sin for himself and whoever follows him, And whoever invents a Good Biddat in islam he will get Reward for himself and all who follow him in that practice
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[ Imam Ibn e Hajar Asqalani (Rah) in Zubda-tul-Fakr ]
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scan of book
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http://www.dawateislami.net/book/rea…eaderPageStart
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He also writes details on evil biddats in next chapter scan of book
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http://www.dawateislami.net/book/rea…eaderPageStart

Imam Ibn e Hajar Asqalani(rah) said:
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“The root meaning of innovation is what is produced without precedent. It is applied in the law in opposition to the Sunna and is therefore blameworthy.
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Strictly speaking, if it is part of what is classified as commendable by the law then it is a good innovation (hasana), while if it is part of what is classified as blameworthy by the law then it is blameworthy (mustaqbaha)
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, otherwise it falls in the category of what is permitted indifferently (mubâh). It can be divided into the known five categories.
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Reference
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Ibn Hajar, Fath. al-Bârî (1959 ed. 5:156-157=1989 ed. 4:318)

Ibn Hazm and Ibn al-Jawzî’s Identical Definition for Bidah e hasina

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Ibn Hazm al-Zâhiri said:
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“Bida in the Religion is everything that did not come to us in the Qur’ân nor from the Messenger of Allâh ,
except that one is rewarded for some of it and those who do this are excused if they have good intentions.
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Of it is the rewardable and excellent (h.asan), namely, what is originally permitted (mâ kâna asluhu al-ibâh.a) as was narrated from `Umar (ra): “What a fine bid`a this is!” Such refers to all good deeds which the texts stipulated in general terms of desirability even if its practice was not fixed in the text. And of it is the blameworthy for which there is no excuse such as what has proofs against its invalidity.
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► Ibn Hazm, al-Ihkâm fî Usûl al-Ahkâm (1:47)

Imam Al Ghazali (rah) support for Bidah e hasina

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H.ujjat al-Islâm al-Ghazzâlî said in his discussion of the adding of dots to the Qur’anic script:
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“The fact that this is innovated (muhdath) forms no impediment to this
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. How many innovated matters are excellent! As it was said concerning the establishing of congregations in Tarâwîh. that it was among the innovations of `Umar (ra) and that it was an excellent innovation (bid`a h.asana).The blameworthy bid`a is only what opposes the ancient Sunna or might lead to changing it.
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Reference
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Al-Ghazzâlî, Ihyâ Ulûm al-Dîn (1:276)

Proof from Ibn e Kathir on allowing mila’d

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أحد الاجواد والسادات الكبراء والملوك الامجاد له آثار حسنة وقد عمر الجامع المظفري بسفح قاسيون وكان قدهم بسياقه الماء إليه من ماء بذيرة فمنعه المعظم من ذلك واعتل بأنه قد يمر على مقابر المسلمين بالسفوح وكان يعمل المولد الشريف في ربيع الاول ويحتفل به احتفالا هائلا وكان مع ذلك شهما شجاعا فاتكا بطلا عاقلا عالما عادلا رحمه الله وأكرم مثواه وقد صنف الشيخ أبو الخطاب ابن دحية له مجلدا في المولد النبوي سماه التنوير في مولد البشير النذير فأجازه على ذلك بألف دينار وقد طالت مدته في الملك في زمان الدولة الصلاحية وقد كان محاصر عكا وإلى هذه السنة محمودالسيرة والسريرة قال السبط حكى بعض من حضر سماط المظفر في بعض الموالد كان يمد في ذلك السماط خمسة آلاف راس مشوى وعشرة آلاف دجاجة ومائة ألف زبدية وثلاثين ألف صحن حلوى
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Translation: He was a generous, mighty master, and glorious ruler, whose works were very good.He built Jamiya al Muzaffari near Qasiyun…
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During Rabi ul Awwal he used to celebrate Mawlid ash Shareef (يعمل المولد الشريف في ربيع الاول) with great celebration,Moreover, he was benevolent, brave, wise, a scholar, and just person – Rahimuhullah wa Ikraam – Sheikh Abul Khattab (rah) wrote a book on Mawlid an Nabwi for him and named it At-Tanwir fi Mawlid al Bashir al Nazeer,for which he gave him 1000 dinars. His rule stayed till the Rule of Salahiya and he captured Aka and he remained a man worthy of respect.


Imam Al Shafi (rah) endorsing Good Bida’h (founder of Shafi Madhab)

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Al-Rabî` said, Imam Al Shafi (Rah) said to us:
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Innovated matters are of two kinds (al-muh.dathâtu min al-umûri d.arbân):
one is an innovation that contravenes (mâ uh.ditha yukhâlifu) something in the Qur’ân or the Sunna or a Companion-report (athar) or the Consensus (ijmâ`): that innovation is misguidance (fahâdhihi al-bid`atu d.alâla)
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The other kind is the innovation of any and all good things (mâ uh.ditha min al-khayr) contravening none of the above, and this is a blameless innovation (wahâdhihi muh.dathatun ghayru madhmûma)
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`Umar (ra) said, concerning the prayers of Ramad.ân: What a fine bid`a this is! meaning that it was innovated without having existed before and, even so, there was nothing in it that contradicted the above[/blue
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Narrated from al-Rabî` by al-Bayhaqî in his Madkhal and Manâqib al-Shâfi`î (1:469) with a sound chain as stated by Ibn Taymiyya in his Dâr’ Ta`ârud. al-`Aql wa al-Naql (p. 171
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►) and through al-Bayhaqî by Ibn `Asâkir in Tabyîn Kadhib al-Muftarî (Kawtharî ed. p. 97). Cited by al-Dhahabî in the Siyar (8:408),
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Ibn Rajab in Jâmi` al-`Ulûm wal-H.ikam (p. 267=Zuh.aylî ed. 2:52-53=Arna’ût. ed. 2:131 s.ah.îh.)
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and Ibn H.ajar in Fath. al-Bârî (1959 ed. 13:253)

Imam Al Shafi (rah) endorsing Good Bida’h (founder of Shafi Madhab)

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A major contribution of Imâm al-Shâfi`î (ra) in the Foundations of Jurisprudence (us.ûl al-fiqh) is his division of innovation (al-bid`a) and innovated matters (al-muh.dathât) into “good” and “bad” depending on their conformity or non-conformity to the guidelines of the Religion.
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This is authentically narrated from al-Shâfi`î from two of his most prestigious students in the latter period of his life,the Egyptian hadîth Masters Harmala ibn Yah.yâ al-Tujaybî and al-Rabî` ibn Sulaymân al-Murâdî:
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Harmala said, “I heard al-Shâfi`î (ra) say:
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‘Innovation is two types (al-bid`atu bid`atân):
approved innovation (bid`a mah.mûda) and disapproved innovation (bid`a madhmûma). Whatever conforms to the Sunna is approved (mah.mûd) and whatever opposes it is abominable (madhmûm).
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He used as his proof the statement of `Umar ibn al-Khat.t.âb (ra) about the [congregational] supererogatory night prayers in the month of Ramad.ân: “What a fine innovation this is!
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Narrated from H.armala by Abû Nu`aym with his chain through Abû Bakr al-âjurrî in H.ilyat al-Awliyâ’ (9:121 #13315=1985 ed. 9:113)
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and cited by Abû Shâma in al-Bâ`ith `alâ Inkâr al-Bida` wal-H.awâdith (Ryadh 1990 ed. p. 93),
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Ibn Rajab in Jâmi` al-`Ulûm wal-H.ikam (p. 267=Zuh.aylî ed. 2:52= Arna’ût. ed. 2:131 s.ah.îh.),
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Ibn H.ajar in Fath. al-Bârî (1959 ed. 13:253),
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al-Turt.ûshî in al-H.awâdith wa al-Bida` (p. 158-159),
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and al-Shawkânî, al-Qawl al-Mufîd fî Adillat al-Ijtihâd wa al-Taqlîd (1347/1929 ed. p. 36). `Umar’s report is narrated by Mâlik in al-Muwat.t.a’ and al-Bukhârî in his S.ah.îh
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This shows that Imam shafi (rah) never interpreted `Umar’s words a ijhtihad or any thing the way the modern muslims over-interpreters (mu`attila) do.

Imam Dhahabi (Rah) writes:

المحدثات من الأمور ضربان ما احدث يخالف كتابا او سنة او اثرا او اجماعا فهذه البدعة ضلالة وما احدث من الخير لا خلاف فيه لواحد من هذا فهذه محدثة غير مذمومة قد قال عمر في قيام رمضان نعمت البدعة

Innovations are of two types, The first consist of those new matters which are in opposition of Quran, Sunnah, Athaar, or Ijma of Ummah, these will be Bidat al Dhalalah (evil innovations). The second type consists of those new matters which are performed for the good, these will not be disliked, This is why Umar (RA) said at Qiyaam of Tarawih: What an excellent Bidah this is

[Imam Dhahabi in As Siyar al Alam an Nabula, Volume 10, Page No. 70]
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Mullah Ali Qari (Rah) the great Hanafi Faqih writes:

قال الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام في آخر كتاب القواعد البدعة إما واجبة كتعلم النحو لفهم كلام الله ورسوله وكتدوين أصول الفقه والكلام في الجرح والتعديل وإما محرمة كمذهب الجبرية والقدرية والمرجئة والمجسمة والرد على هؤلاء من البدع الواجبة لأن حفظ الشريعة من هذه البدع فرض كفاية وإما مندوبة كإحداث الربط والمدارس وكل إحسان لم يعهد في الصدر الأول وكالتراويح أي بالجماعة العامة والكلام في دقائق الصوفية وإما مكروهة كزخرفة المساجد وتزويق المصاحف يعني عند الشافعية وأما
عند الحنفية فمباح وأما مباحة كالمصافحة عقيب الصبح والعصر أي عند الشافعية أيضا وإلا فعند الحنفية مكروه والتوسع في لذائذ المآكل والمشارب والمساكن و,توسيع الأكمام

Sheikh Izz ud din bin Abdus Salam (Rahimuhullah) at the end of his book Al-Qawaid explains Bidah as: The study of the disciplines of Arabic that are necessary to understand the Qur’an and sunnah (such as grammar, word declension, and lexicography), to derive Usool of Fiqh,

The knowledge of Jirah wa Tadil (i.e. hadith classification to distinguish between correct and batil ahadith) are all Bidat al Wajiba (i.e. necessary new innovations), The Bidat al Mahrima include invention of new madhahib such as Jabriyah, Mujasmiyah..

….all these would be refuted through Bidat al Wajiba because it is Fard al Kifayah to defend shariah from such bidahs. On the other hand construction of universities and all other good deeds in Faruh which were not present in initial stages of Islam such as Tarawih in Jamaat, delicate points in Tassawuf will be Bidat al Mandub (i.e. allowed). The Shafi’is consider embellishing of mosques and Quran to be Bidat al Makruh (i.e. disliked), whereas Ahnaaf consider it Mubah (i.e. allowed),on the other hand Shafi’is consider shaking of hands after Fajr and Asr to be Mubah (i.e. allowed) whereas Ahnaaf consider it disliked, similarly making delicious foods and drinks, making houses spacious (are all included in allowed Bidahs) [Mullah Ali Qari in Mirqat al Mifatih Sharah Mishkaat al Misabih Volume 1, Page No. 216]
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Imam Ibn Hajar Hayathami [rah] said

وفي الحديث “كل بدْعة ضلالة وكل ضلالة في النا,” وهو محمول على المحرمة لا غي

Translation:That which is narrated in Hadith that All innovations are evil and all evil are in hell fire, This hadith will be applied for Bidat al Muhrima (i.e. evil innovations only) not others.[Al Haytami in Fatawa al Hadithiyyah, Page No. 203].

Imam Nawawi (rah) said:

البدعة في الشرع هي احداث مالم يکن في عهد رسول اﷲ صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم وهي منقسمة الي حسنة و قبيحة وقال الشيخ الامام المجمع علي امامته و جلالته و تمکنه في انواع العلوم و براعته ابو محمد عبدالعزيز بن عبدالسلام في آخر ’’کتاب القواعد‘‘ البدعة منقسمة إلي واجبة و محرمة و مندوبة و مکروهة و مباحة قال والطريق في ذلک أن تعرض البدعة علي قواعد الشريعة فان دخلت في قواعد الايجاب فهي واجبة و إن دخلت في قواعد التحريم فهي محرمة و إن دخلت في قواعد المندوب فهي مندوبه و ان دخلت في قواعد المکروه فهي مکروهة و ان دخلت في قواعد المباح فهي مباحة

Translation: “al-Bid`ah in the Law is the innovating of what did not exist in the time of the Messenger of Allah and is divided into “Excellent” and “bad” (wahya munqasimatun ila hasana wa qabiha). The Shaykh, the Imam on whose foremost leadership, greatness, standing, and brilliance in all kinds of Islamic sciences there is consensus, Abû Muh.ammad `Abd al-`Aziz ibn `Abd al-Salam – Allah have mercy on him and be well-pleased with him! – said toward the end of his book, al-Qawa`id :Innovation is divided into ‘obligatory’ (wajiba), ‘forbidden’s (muharrama), ‘recommended’s (manduba), ‘offensive’s (makuiha), and ‘indifferent’s (mubaha). The way [to discriminate] in this is that the innovation be examined in the light of the regulations of the Law (qawa`id al-sharp`a).

If it falls under the regulations of obligatoriness (ijab) then it is obligatory; under the regulations of prohibitiveness (tahrum) then it is prohibited; recommendability, then recommended; offensiveness, then offensive; indifference, then indifferent.” [al-Nawawi, Tahdhib al-Asma’ wal-Lughat Volume 003, Page No. 22]
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Imam Ibn al-athir al-Jazari’s Identical Definition

البدعة بدعتان : بدعة هدًي، و بدعة ضلال، فما کان في خلاف ما أمر اﷲ به و رسوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم فهو في حيز الذّم والإنکار، وما کان واقعا تحت عموم ما ندب اﷲ إليه و حضَّ عليه اﷲ أو رسوله فهو في حيز المدح، وما لم يکن له مثال موجود کنوع من الجود والسخاء و فعل المعروف فهو من الأفعال المحمودة، ولا يجوز أن يکون ذلک في خلاف ما ورد الشرع به؛ لأن النبي صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم قد جعل له في ذلک ثوابا فقال من سنّ سُنة حسنة کان له أجرها و أجر من عمل بها وقال في ضِدّه ومن سنّ سنة سيّئة کان عليه وزرُها ووِزرُ من عمل بها(1) وذلک إذا کان في خلاف ما أمر اﷲ به ورسوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم

Translation: “Bida’h is two kinds: the bida’h of guidance and the bid`a of misguidance (bid`atu huda wa-bid`atu dalala). Whatever contravenes the command of Allah and His Messenger : that is within the sphere of blame and condemnation. And whatever enters into the generality of what Allah or His Prophet commended or stressed: that is within the sphere of praise. Whatever has no precedent such as extreme generosity or goodness – such are among the praiseworthy acts. It is impermissible that such be deemed to contravene the Law because the Prophet has stipulated that such would carry reward when he said: “Whoever institutes a good practice in Islam (man sanna fil-islami sunnatan hasana) has its reward and the reward of all those who practice it.” And he said, conversely, “whoever institutes a bad practice in Islâm (waman sanna fil-islami sunnatan sayyi’atan) bears its onus and the onus of all those who practice it.”

Ibn al-Athîr said in his masterpiece, al-Nihâya fî Gharîb al-H.âdîth wal-Athar

Anything which contradicts the principles of Shariah is Bidat al Dhalalah (innovation of misguidance), whereas any new good thing which has asal in Quran and Sunnah is called Bidat al Hasanah (praiseworthy innovation)

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The detailed explanation of Bidah
Plus It was proven that Prophet (Peace be upon him) himself accepted new innovations, therefore our beloved Prophet could never contradict and this decisively proves that every new innovation cannot be declared as bad and they have to be first checked in “light of Principles” If we do not understand this usool then even Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) could be Naudhobillah accused, above all Islam is a perfectly logical faith and our Final Prophet could never do something which he himself contradicted to (Naudhobillah)

The explanation in Lisan ul Arab!

All should read this following explanation carefully because we are going to present the translation of passage regarding Bidah from Imam Ibn Manzur’s Lisaan ul Arab (work on lexicography), the passage is not to be exploited by anyone nor misused, It has one of the most wonderful and clearest definition of Bidah and that too in detail once and for all

Imam Ibn Munzur(rah) the author of Lisaan ul Arab the outstanding book on Lughat, he writes

Bidat comes from the word Hadath i.e. (any) new thing which comes forward after the completion of Deen. Umar ibn ul Khattab (ra) said about Salaat of Tarawih: What an EXCELLENT BIDAH this is [Refer to Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No.2010]. Bidah consists ofTWO TYPES WHICH ARE BIDAT AL HASANAH AND BIDAT AS-SAIYA anything which is against the orders of Allah (and Prophet) then It is prohibited whereas anything which comes under general permissible things which have been recommended by Allah and his Apostle (Peace be upon him) then to do it is Fair.

The new matters which do not have previous examples such as different types of charities and other such good deeds are permitted provided they are not “Against principles of shariah” The Prophet (Peace be upon him) has given glad tiding upon such good deeds (in general), The Prophet (salallaho alaihi wasalam) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, and contrary to this he said: And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) BUT THIS WILL ONLY HAPPEN IF THE DEED IS AGAINST THE AHKAAM OF ALLAH AND HIS APOSTLEAnd that which Umar (ra) said: This is an excellent bidah then it also comes in the category of above because when Taraiwh is amongst good deeds (itself) then It will be included in Praiseworthy deeds, and this is why Umar (ra) CALLED IT BIDAH AND PRAISED IT, secondly our Prophet (Peace be upon him) did not teach us the way of Tarawih (himself), he prayed Tarawih for few nights but then LEFT IT AND NOR DID HE ORDER TO GATHER PEOPLE FOR IT AND NOR WAS IT PRACTISED DURING THE TIME OF ABU BAKR, ONLY UMAR (RA) MADE ARRANGMENT OF GATHERING PEOPLE AND MADE PROPER WAY OF IT AND THIS IS WHY HE PRECISELY CALLED IT BIDAHwhereas in reality it will be called Sunnah because the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: Hold fast onto my way and the way of 4 rightly guided caliphs [Refer to Sunnan Abu Dawud Hadith # 4607]

Just like it the hadith which states: Every new matter is Bidah (and every bidah is misguidance) then THAT IS ALSO ATTRIBUTED ONLY TO THOSE THINGS WHICH GO AGAINST THE PRINCIPLES OF SHARIAH, WHEREAS THOSE WHICH ARE IN CONFORMITY OF SUNNAH WILL NOT BE CALLED BIDAH

End Quote- Reference:
[ Lisaan ul Arab, Volume No. 2, Pages 37-38, Published by Dar us Sadir, Beirut, Lebanon]
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Sheikh Izz ud din bin Abdus Salam (Rah)


قال الشيخ عز الدين بن عبد السلام في آخر كتاب القواعد البدعة إما واجبة كتعلم النحو لفهم كلام الله ورسوله وكتدوين أصول الفقه والكلام في الجرح والتعديل وإما محرمة كمذهب الجبرية والقدرية والمرجئة والمجسمة والرد على هؤلاء من البدع الواجبة لأن حفظ الشريعة من هذه البدع فرض كفاية وإما مندوبة كإحداث الربط والمدارس وكل إحسان لم يعهد في الصدر الأول وكالتراويح أي بالجماعة العامة والكلام في دقائق الصوفية وإما مكروهة كزخرفة المساجد وتزويق المصاحف يعني عند الشافعية وأما
عند الحنفية فمباح وأما مباحة كالمصافحة عقيب الصبح والعصر أي عند الشافعية أيضا وإلا فعند الحنفية مكروه والتوسع في لذائذ المآكل والمشارب والمساكن وتوسيع الأكمام

Translation: Sheikh Izz ud din bin Abdus Salam (Rahimuhullah) at the end of his book Al-Qawaid explains Bidah as: The study of the disciplines of Arabic that are necessary to understand the Qur’an and sunnah (such as grammar, word declension, and lexicography), to derive Usool of Fiqh, The knowledge of Jirah wa Tadil (i.e. hadith classification to distinguish between correct and batil ahadith) are all Bidat al Wajiba (i.e. necessary new innovations).The Bidat al Muhrima (Haram) include invention of new sects such as Jabriyah, Qadriyah, Murjiyah and Mujasmiyah, all these would be refuted through Bidat al Wajiba because it is Fard al Kifayah to defend shariah from such bidahs. On the other hand construction of universities and all other good deeds in Faruh which were not present in initial stages of Islamsuch as Tarawih in Jamaat, delicate points in Tassawuf will be Bidat al Mundub (i.e. allowed).The Shafi’is consider embellishing of mosques and Quran to be Bidat al Makruh (i.e. disliked), whereas Ahnaaf consider it Mubah (i.e. allowed),on the other hand Shafi’is consider shaking of hands after Fajr and Asr to be Mubah (i.e. allowed) whereas Ahnaaf consider it disliked, similarly making delicious foods and drinks, making houses spacious (are all included in allowed Bidahs)

[Mullah Ali Qari in Mirqat al Mafatih Sharah Mishkaat al Misabih Volume 1, Page No. 216]
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Examples from Classicla scholars
muhadiseen
who believe in Good biddah
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Almost all the aa’ima and muhadasin have supported the division of bid’at into its types (some have divided it even in more than two types). A selective list (in chronological order of their year of death) follows here.

► Imam Muhammad Bin Idrees Bin Abbas Ash-Shafai (204 H)
►Imam Abu Abdullah Muhammad Bin Ahmad Al-Qurtabi (380 H)
►Imam Ali Bin Ahmad Ibn Hazm Al-Undalasi (456 H)
►Imam Abu Bakar Ahmad Bin Hussain Al-Bahaqi (458 H)
► Imam Abu Hamid Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Ghazali (505 H)
►Imam Abu Zakariya Muhai-ud-Din Bin Sharf An-Novavi (676 H)
► Imam Hafiz Imad-ud-Din Abu-ul-Fida Ismail Ibn-e-Kasir (774 H)
► Imam Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Bin Musa Ash-Shay’tabi (790 H)
► Imam Abd-ur-Rehman Bin Shahab-ud-Din Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbli (795 H)
► Imam Abu-ul-Fazal Ahmad Bin Ali Bin Muhammad Ibn-e-Hajar Asqlani (852 H)
► Imam Jalal-ud-Din Abdur-Rehman Bin Abu Bakar As-Suoti(911 H)
► Imam Abu-ul-Abbas Ahmad Bin Muhammad Shahab-ud-Din Al-Qustlani (923 H)
► Imam Ahmad Shahab-ud-Din Ibn-e-Hajar Al-Mecci Al-Haismi (974 H)
► Imam Mulla Ali Bin Sultan MuhammadMulla Al-Qari (1014 H)
► Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhadis Dehlvi (1052 H)
► Sheikh Muhammad Bin Ali Bin Muhammad Ash-Shokani (1255 H)
► Allama Shahab-ud-Din Syed Mahmood Aa’losi (1270 H)
► Nawab Sadiq Hassan Khan Bhopali (1307 H)
► Molana Shabir Ahmad Usmani (1369 H)
► Ash-Sheikh Muhammad Bin Alvi Al-Maliki Al-Mecci (1425 H)

and many more,


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PRoof of evil biddah from Salafs ,Muhadiseen,Classical scholars of Islam
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Imam Malik (D.179H) said:

“He who innovates a bid’ah in Islam regarding it as something good, has claimed that Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) has betrayed his trust to deliver the message as Allah says, ‘this day have I perfected for you your religion’. And whatsoever was not part of the religion then, is not part of the religion today.” (al-I’tisaam)

Imaam Abu Haneefah(Rahimullah)

“stick to the narrations and the way of the salaf, and beware of the newly invented matters for all of it is innovation” [Sawnul Muntaq of as-Suyutee pg.32]

Imaam Bukhaaree (Rahimullah)
“I have met more than a thousand scholars.(then he mentioned the names of the more prominent in each of the lands that he travelled in) and I found that they all agreed on the following points: they all used to prohibit bid’ah – that which the Prophet and his Companions were not upon, because of the saying of Allaah, ‘and hold fast to the rope of Allaah and do not separate'”

[Imaam Bukhaaree’s article on belief as quoted in Sharh Usul I’tiqaad 1/170. From amongst the scholars he met were: Ahmad bin Hanbal, Abu Ubaid al-Qaasim, ibn Ma’een, ibn Aasim, ibn Abee Shaybah.]

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him)

“This hadeeth is one of the most important basic principles of Islam, and it is one of the most concise and comprehensive sayings of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). It clearly states that innovations and newly invented matters will be rejected. The second report adds another idea, which is that some of those who follow the innovations of others may become stubborn when they are presented with the evidence of the first report which says, “Whoever innovates something…” They may say, “I am not innovating anything”. But he may in this case be presented with the evidence of the second report, which says, “Whoever does any action…” This clearly shows that all innovated actions will be rejected, whether the one who does them innovates them himself or is following someone else who innovated it… This hadeeth is one that should be learned by heart and used to denounce evil actions and be spread as evidence so that all people may use it.” (Sharh Muslim, 12/16).

Many many more examples where Bad bidah is criticized and that which is according to principles of Quran and hadith is admired.

2.1 TYPES OF BID’AT AND THEIR STATUS IN THE SHARI’AH


We have seen that Bid’at is of two kinds, viz. Bid’at Hasana (appreciable innovation) and Bid’at Sai’yya (offensive innovation).

Bid’at Hasana is divided in three categories:

  1. Bid’at Ja’iz (permissable)
  2. Bid’at Mustahab (appreciable)
  3. Bid’at Wajib (essential)

Bid’at Sai’yya is categorised in two:

  1. Bid’at Makruh (abominable)
  2. Bid’at Haraam (prohibited)
2.2 DEFINITION OF THE CATEGORIES OF BID’AT AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

We have seen that a Bid’at which does not contradict with the Holy Quran and Sunnah is Bid’at Hasana and that which contradicts with the Holy Quran and Sunnah or leads to an annihilation of a Sunnah is Bid’at Sai’yya.
Bid’at is divided into five categories and the characteristics of each is given below.

A. BID’AT JA’IZ :

is that action which the Shari’atprohibited and which is done without expecting any reward or punishment for it. For example, partaking in a variety of delicious dishes or wearing nice and attractive clothing, etc.

B. BID’AT MUSTAHAB :

is that act which is done with an anticipation for earning reward, for example to pray the Milad-un-Nabi (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) or to pray Fatiha for the souls of deceased Muslims, etc. If is done with the intention of gaining rewards, he will gain reward for it, and if one does not do it, he will not be reprimanded for omitting it.
Mirqat Bad-ul I’tisaam says, “Hazrat Abdullah ibn-e Mas’ood (radi Allahu anhu) has narrated from the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) that, ‘What the Muslims consider as good then it is also considered as good by Allah.’ Another Hadith which is Marfu’ says, ‘My Ummah will not agree upon a thing which is misleading.'” In the first pages of Miskhat there is a Hadith, “Verily actions depend upon intentions and a man will get whatever he intends for.”

The book of Fiqh Darr-e-Mukhtaar (Vol.1) under the chapter of Mustahabs of Ablutions says, “A Mustahab action is that action which the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) at times did and at times omitted and also that which the Muslims preceding us thought to be good.”

The book Shami (Vol. 5) under the chapter of Qurbani says, “Verily good intentions change habits into worship.” It is also written similarly in the book Mirqat under the chapter of Intentions.

From these Hadiths and quotings from different books of Fiqh we come to know that whatever permissable action done with an intention of anticipating rewards or that which the Muslims consider as reward earning is also considered as rewarding in the Judgement of Allah Ta’ala. Muslims are witnesses of Allah Ta’ala and whatever they witness to be good is good and whatever they witness to be evil is evil.

C. BID’AT WAJIB :

is that new action which has not been prohibited in the Shari’at but to omit it will lead to critical complications in the religion. For example, to put the expressions (I’raab) in the Holy Quran such as Fatha (Zabar), Kasra (Zer) and Dhumma (Pesh), to construct madressas for teaching the Holy Quran and Hadith and to learn and teachthe knowledge of nahv (Arabic syntax), etc. are all Bid’at Wajib.Let’s take an example of the complication which the Muslims will face if one of these things was to be omitted. Supposing the expressions of the Holy Quran were to be erased, then millions of Muslims who are not familiar with the Arabic syntax (Nahv – the learning of which is also Bid’at Wajib) will not be able to read the Holy Book correctly and will be sinful for reading it incorrectly.

D. BID’AT MAKRUH :

Is that innovation the performing of which will lead to the annihilation of a Sunnah. If a Ghaiyr Mu’akkidah Sunnah is annihilated then it is Makruh Tanzihi and if a Mu’akkidah Sunnahis annihilated then it is Makruh Tahrimi. For example, to pray the Eid Khutba in a language other than Arabic, etc. is Bid’at Makruh Tahrimi.

E. BID’AT HARAAM :

Is that innovation which will lead to the annihilation of a Wajib. For example, the introductions of beliefs which are in contradiction with the Kitab and Sunnah, such as Qadriyya who believe, that man has got all the power to do whatever he wishes, and Jabriyya, who believe that man has got no power at all and all actions are done under compulsion, whereas the belief of the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamaat is that man has been given option in some things and is under compulsion in some. So to believe as the Qadriyya or the Jabriyya will lead to the annihilation of a Wajib which is Haraam. Many sects have been introduced into Islam after the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said: “My Ummah will be divided into seventy three sects and all will be in Hell exceptone. That upon which I and my Sahaba are.”

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