The Case of Ibne Saba Controversy
There are many views regarding this matter that who was infact ibn-e-Saba. Do he existed in the era of Khilafat-e-Usman Ghani (ra) or not.There are also two opinion and according to some extreme shias (ghali), they reject the account of the authentication of this person by Sunnis on the basis of the story of Tabari’s in which he show the history of ibne Saba by the chain of Sayf bin Umar, who is weak narrator, and says that even many Sunni scholars rejected him on the basis of weak narrations. Although there is also another thought that his Historical narrations are never rejected.In this article i will represent the total information which is available and will try to summerize it, but because of the fact that this topic has been mentioned several times on several different forums and groups, still there are few authentic outer references which has to be touched. This my research work composed and in collaboration with different Sunni and Shia articles on this subject with the aim to show the both point of views.
Abd Allah ibn Sabaʾ al-Ḥimyarī (or “Sabāʾ”, also sometimes called ibn al-Sawdāʾ, ibn Wahb, or ibn Ḥarb) was a 7th-century figure in Islamic history who may or may not have had an actual historical existence and often associated with a group of followers called the Sabaʾiyya.(According to Hodgson, M. G. S. (1960). “ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sabaʾ”. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 51. ISBN 90-04-08114-3). However Modern historical view, is not clear what historical person or persons lay behind this figure.[Hodgson] It is believed that Abdulah Ibn Saba may have been actually several figures(e.g. Hodgson), semi legendary (Caetani, Momen Moojan), or legendary and fictional (Taha Hussein, Ali al-Wardi, Bernard Lewis, Wilferd Madelung, Askari)[according to Tucker,William Frederick (2008). Mahdis and millenarians: Shi’ite extremists in early Muslim Iraq.Cambridge University Press.pp.10-12.ISBN978-0-521-88384-9] but Israel Friedlander and Sabatino Moscati affirm his existence.
According to Tabari, based on traditions collected by Sayf ibn Umar, Ibn Saba’ was a Yemenite Jew who embraced Islam. During the time of Ali ibn Abi Taleb, he introduced a number of concepts that later were ascribed to more extreme factions of Shia Islam, or ghulat. According to these traditions, the exaltation of Ali, his divine appointment by the Islamic prophet Muhammad as a successor, the concept of ghayba and return (rajʿa) were first formulated and expressed by Ibn Sabaʾ and his followers (the Sabaʾiyya).He and his followers are sometimes said to be the ones who enticed the Egyptians against Uthman on the ground of Ali’s special right of succession, and participated in further instigation at later conflicts.
(Ref:Al-Samarrai, Qasim (2000-09-19), “Sayf ibn ʿUmar and ibn Sabaʾ: A new approach”, in Tudor Parfitt, Israel and Ishmael: studies in Muslim-Jewish relations, Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 52–58)
(REf:Bibliography: Shatrastani al-Milal, pp. 132 et seq. (in Haarbrücken’s translation, i. 200-201); Weil, Gesch. der Chalifen, i. 173-174, 209, 259)
(Ref:Hodgson, M. G. S. (1960). “ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sabaʾ”. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 51)
In Shia’ views, the claim that Ibn Saba’ as a convert Jew is the founder of Shia is propaganda. Although the existence of Abdullah Ibn Saba’ is seriously under question, even if such a person existed, the stories propagated about this person are legendary, false, fabricated, and fictitious. In traditional Shi’a sources, he is sometimes viewed as an extremist Shia (ghulat), himself cursed by Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq. Nevertheless, Ibn Sabaʾ became the subject of a tradition used by different Shia factions to both attack and defend extreme Shia groups. According to this tradition, and depending on the different interpretations, Ali either burned or exiled him and his followers for declaring Ali as God.*REf3 of above.
According to Hodgson Abdullah Ibn Saba may have been actually several figures, He also suggests that Ibn Saba’ and Ibn al-Sawada’ should be considered as two separate individuals.(Ref:Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, Cambridge University Press, 2002, Page 159).But According to Leone Caetani, Ibn Saba in origin was a purely political supporter of Ali, “around whom later generations imagined a religious conspiracy like that of the Abbasids.Ibn Saba is called a semi-legendary figure by Moojan in his ( Moojan Momen, An Introduction to Shi`i Islam, Yale University Press, 1985;p. 46
^ Massi Dakake, Maria, The Charismatic Community: Shi’ite Identity in Early Islam, 2007, 978-0-7914-7033-6, page 262).
Israel Friedlander, Julius Wellhausen, and most particularly, Leone Caetani, assert that Sayf fabricated the episode about killing of Uthman to “exonerate the people of Medina from participation in the caliph’s murder” and as Friedlander adds finding a “scapegoat for the troubles surrounding Uthman” and any complicity in the strife resulting in the death of third caliph.Tucker asserts that although it may have been the case, there is no concrete evidence supporting this theory. Tucker also states that even Sayf’s accounts of Ibn Saba’ was a fabrication, he appears to be only the transmitter of the story and not the ultimate source. He pointed out that accusations of bias could equally be leveled at other akhbārīs contemporary to Sayf, including the Shi’a historian Abu Mikhnaf. Israel Friedlander, Julius Wellhausen, and Leone Caetani, note that that sources older than al-Tabari are silent on Ibn Saba’ and his role in the agitation against Uthman. “They aver that the movement for supporting Ali as heir and testamentary trustee of the prophet did not exist in the time of Uthman as Ibn Saba’ had alleged. Therefore they refuse to accept the authenticity of Ibn Saba’s claim that Ali was the heir of prophet”. Caetani noted that a religious conspiracy may have been created around the person of Ibn Sabaʾ even though he may have been just a political supporter of Ali.
(Reffs:Moosa, Matti (1987). Extremist Shiites: the ghulat sects. Syracuse, New York, USA: Syracuse University Press. pp. 580.
(Reffs:Tucker, William Frederick (2008). Mahdis and millenarians: Shī’ite extremists in early Muslim Iraq. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–12)
(Reffs:Hodgson, M. G. S. (1960). “ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sabaʾ”. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. p. 51)
W. F. Tucker notes that some scholars argued that Tabari’s account of Ibn Saba conspiracies against Uthman is a fabrication of Sayf Ibn Umar. and should be generally considered unreliable. However, one scholar, Landau-Tasseron, notes that although Sayf may have been an unscrupulous hadith collector, this should not detract on his reliability as a transmitter of historical information (akhbārī).Also Linda D. Lau, accepted Sayf’s accounts and the role of the Saba’iyya at the Battle of the Camel. She points out that traditionalists other than Sayf did not give an explanation to why the hostilities broke out after the near-settlement. Not only Sayf’s account is the sole exiting account with an explanation of what happened, it is also logically consistent(Landau-Tasseron, Ella (1990-01). “Sayf Ibn ’Umar in Medieval and Modern Scholarship”. Der Islam 67: 1–26). But Linda D. Lau and A. R. Armush, in what seem to be independent studies, reached the conclusion that Sayf’s explanation is not only the sole existing one, but is also governed by inner logic so that there is no reason to reject it.”
Another free study says:
However, according to Hartwig Hirschfeld, Abdullah bin Saba’ was a Jew from Yemen who embraced Islam.(Jewish Encyclopedia,Wikipedia)Israel Friedlander suggested that he may have been a son of an Ethiopian Falasha woman, which explains why he was called “ibn al-Sawdāʾ”. W. F. Tucker, after examining the different arguments, concludes that “Whatever is the case regarding his ethnic identity, it is quite probable that Ibn Saba’ was a Yemenite, and that he came from a Jewish milieu”.(Tucker, William Frederick (2008). Mahdis and millenarians: Shī’ite extremists in early Muslim Iraq. Cambridge University Press. pp. 10–12).
Traditionally, Abd Allah ibn Sabaʾ is considered as the first of the ghulāt. He may have been the first to deny that Ali had died and predicting his return (rajʿa), which was considered one form of ghulū. Also, the notion of the absence (ghayba) of an imam seem to have appeared first among the ghulāt.[ Hodgson, M. G. S. (1965). “GHULĀT”. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 1093–1095.]
Concerning Ibn Saba’ religious beliefs, particularly that of the Sabaʾiyya, Tucker noted that they are more complete and better recorded in sources devoted to heresiography. But Hodgson states that there are contradictions in what religious views is ascribed to him and his followers.Heinz Halm records him as a representative of a Ghulat group from the city of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (al-Madā’in) who came to see ‘Alī in Kūfah. When Ibn Saba’ proclaimed ‘Alī’s divinity, ‘Alī denied this angrily and exiled him back to Seleucia-Ctesiphon.[Heinz Halm, Shi’ism 2nd Edition p 155, (1987) 2004 Columbia University Press] Heinz Halm adds that Islamic Islamic writers such as Ašʿari in Maqālāt, Baḡdādi in Feraq have said that Ibn Saba’ was the first person who idolizedAli ibn Abi Talib . He preached that ʿAli was God (al-elāh). After ʿAli’s death, he is said to maintain this idea that “a devil in ʿAli’s appearance had been murdered” and ʿAli had ascended to heaven and that his occultation (rajʿa) was imminent.(Halm, Heinz (December 15, 2001). [URL http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/golat “ḠOLĀT”]. In Ehsan Yarshater. Encyclopedia Iranica (Online ed.). Retrieved October 20, 2011).
n Shia’ views, the claim that Ibn Saba’ as a convert Jew is the founder of Shia and split the Muslims. Although the existence of a person in the name of Abdullah Ibn Saba’ in the early history of Islam is seriously under question, even if such a person existed, the stories propagated about this person are legendary, false, fabricated, and fictitious.[according to shia al-islam org] It is true that in Shia’ traditions Ali ordered Abdullah Ibn Saba’ and his followers burned because they assumed Ali God. But Shī‘a views believe that fabricated stories around the character of Abdullah Ibn Saba’ are the malicious production of Sayf Ibn Umar al-Tamimi.He was a story teller who shaped his fictional stories based on primary facts he found in the documented history of Islam available at that time.But it is true that in Shia’ traditions Ali ordered Abdullah Ibn Saba’ and his followers burned because they assumed Ali God.
But here is interesting twist again the same Shia’s and few dominant scholars of Shi’ite muslims talked about the existance of Ibne Saba and confirmed his ugly views in their own books.Shiya refutations does not mention those Scholars because they try to avoid these facts which has be expressively expressed in their own higher scholars.For the Shi’a he sometimes figured as type of the extremist, the ghali. It is said that Jafar Sadiq, the sixth Shia’ Imam and the founder of Shi’a Islamic fiqh, cursed him. In Shia’ traditions ordered Ibn Saba’ and his followers burned because they assumed Ali God.Shī‘a scholars such as Abu Muhammad al-Hasan bin Musa al-Nubakhti,[Book Firaq al-Shi’a: Nubakhti, pp.43,44] Abu Amr bin Abdul Aziz al-Kash-shi,[in Rijaal al-Kash-shi: Abu ‘Amr bin Abdul Aziz al-Kash-shi, p.101 al-Mamaqaani, author of “Tanqeeh al-Maqaal”, who is an authoritative Shi’i biogrophist quoted the like in his said book, p.184] Al-Hasan bin Ali al-Hilly,[Kitaab al-Rijaal: al-Hilly, p.469, printed in Tehran, Iran 1383 h. From Ash-Shi’a wat-Tashayyu’, p.56] al-Astra Abadi,[Manhaj al-Maqaal: al-Astar Abadi, p.203, from: Ash-Ashia wat-Tashayyu’, p.56]Al-Sadooq,[Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih1/229] and Al-Nawbakhty.[page 19-20.] gave the stories and narrations of Ibn Saba.
Other References in Shia books are as here:
Existence of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba is both accepted by Sunnis, Shias and the Westerner historians. Today some Shias try their best to even deny his existence, let alone the role he played in the foundation of Shiahism. He is to Shiahism, what Saint Paul is to Christianity.
1. It says in Anwar al-N’umaniyyah, a Shia book,
‘Abdullah Ibn-i-Saba was the first who declared the faith in Imamat and that Sayyiduna ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) is the true God (Na’uzubillah).
(Anwar al-N’umaniyyah, 2:234 – Published Iran)
2. The name of ‘Abdullah bin Saba figures in the most reliable book of Shias on Isma ur-Rijal, entitled Rijal-i-Kashshi and it is related in it from Imam Jafar Sadiq (may Allah have mercy on him) that Ibn Saba believed in the divinity of Sayyiduna ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), and, ultimately, he was burnt alive at his command. About ‘Abdullah bin Saba, Rijal-e-Kashshi says,
“Many knowledgeable people have stated that ‘Abdullah bin Saba was a Jew who had accepted Islam and showed great devotion for Sayyiduna ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). As a Jew, he used to exaggerated the personality of Joshua, the son of Nun, and the Wasi of Moses. After becoming a Muslim he began to exalt the personality of Sayyiduna ‘Ali much beyond the due limit, and he was the first person to declare that it was obligatory to believe in the Imamat of Sayyiduna ‘Ali, and completely dissociated himself form his enemies and he openly opposed them and denounced them as infidels”. (Rijal-i-Kashi, p.71)
3. The earliest historian Tabri has sketched out the details in these words,
“‘Abdullah bin Saba was a Jew and lived in Sana. His mother was called Sauda. He embraced Islam during the period of Sayyiduna Uthman. he roamed through the Muslim cities and tried to seduce the Muslims from the straight path. He launched his diabolical campaign from Hijaz and then visited Basra, Kufa and Syria. None of the Syrians cooperated with him. On the contrary, they drove him out of Syria. Thus he moved over to Egypt and settled down there permanently. He started drumming into the minds of the Egyptians that it was strange they believed in the return of Christ and denied the return of Sayyiduna Muhammad [peace be upon him]. God himself had declared. Therefore he has a better claim to return to the world in comparison with Christ. He fabricated the concept of the ‘return’ or resurrection and the Egyptians turned in into a hot debating issue.”
4. Hafiz Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) and Hafiz Ibn Athir (may Allah have mercy on him) have commented on it on similar lines and ‘Allamaj Ibn Khaldun (may Allah have mercy on him) has also written about it,
“Abdullah bin Saba, who was popularly known as Ibn Sauda, was a Jew. He had left his country during the tenure of Sayyiduna ‘Uthman but he had not embraced Islam from the core of his heart. When he was honked out of Basra, he left for Kufa from where he made a bee – line for Syria. The Syrians also whipped him out of their country and he left for Egypt. He made Sayyiduna ‘Uthman (may Allah have mercy on him) the special butt of his critical remarks and secretly invited people to institute the Khilafat of the Ahl-i-Bay’t. He pressed upon people to launch the campaign and he spared no opportunity to criticize the rulers. Some of the people openly sided with him. They had come from different cities and therefore they kept up their links through correspondence. Khalid bin Maljim, Saudan bin Hamran and Kinana bin Basher supported the campaign launched by ‘Abdullah bin Saba. They had also persuaded ‘Ammar not to return to Madina. ‘Ammar was one of those people who had openly lambasted Sayyiduna Uthman (may Allah have mercy on him) for first turning Sayyiduna Abu Zar (may Allah have mercy on him) out of Syria into Madinah and then for pushing him out of Madinah towards Abzah, though, under the circumstances, the action of ‘Uthman was justified. Abu Zar (may Allah have mercy on him), out of the intensity of his piety and austerity, used to force people to lead their lives on similar lines and to learn to face the hardships of life. He persuaded people to stock for themselves not more than a day’s ration. He also illustrate ed with reasoning the undesirability of hoarding gold and silver. Ibn Saba used to instigate Abu Zar (may Allah have mercy on him) against Sayyiduna Muawiyyah by stressing that he supported the distribution of goods among the people. Abu Zar (may Allah have mercy on him) started condemning Muawiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him). Muawiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) coaxed him a little and told him: I’ll also harp on the same turn that all goods belong to Allah.”
5. Hafiz ibn Hajr (may Allah have mercy on him) has related on the authority of Tarikh Abi Asakir,
“He belonged to Yemen. He was a Jew, but he had donned the guise of Islam and roamed through the Muslim cities to lead the Muslims astray and dissuade them from the obedience of their Imams and to sow dissension among them. He also visited Damascus with this end in view”. (Tarikh Damishq, 7:430)
6. ‘Allamah Asfaraini (may Allah have mercy on him) has also commented on it in a similar vein,
“Ibn Sauda was a Jew who had donned the gown of Islam to addle the faith of the Muslims”.
7. Abu Muhammad Hassan bin Musa has unraveled these secrets. He is the earliest Shiah historian who has given an account of the Shiah sects. He is one of the most famous Shiah of the third century A.H. He writes,
“Sabais are the companions of ‘Abdullah bin Saba. ‘Abdullah bin Saba made faces at Sayyiduna Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and other companions (may Allah be pleased with them) of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and disaffiliated himself from them and he imputed his acts to the command of ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him). When ‘Ali caught hold of him and asked him about it, he confessed to it. After his confession, he ordered him to be executed. On hearing the order, [quite a few people] made a humble submission to ‘Ali:O Amir al-Muminin! You have ordered the execution of a person who professes your friendship and the love of your Ahl al-Bay’t. ‘Ali complied with the submission and exiled him to Madain.”
8. The famous Shia biographer Istrabadi says,
“Abdullah bin Saba claimed that ‘Ali is Allah and he is his Prophet. When the news reached the Amir al-Muminin, he sent for him and asked him about it. He owned it and insisted that he is really the one [who is the referee of his claim]. The Amir al-Muminin said: The devil has seduced you. Therefore you should repent at once. But he refused to repent and he put him behind the bars for three days. When he did not repent even after three days, he burned him alive”.
9. Shaykh ‘Abdul Qadir Jaylani Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) says,
“The followers of ‘Abdullah bin Saba are called Sabains. Ibn Saba relied on exaggeration about the status of Sayyiduna ‘Ali and claimed that he was a prophet. Then, relying on further exaggeration he claimed that he was God and he invited a party of the Kufi rebels to adopt these beliefs. When the news reached ‘Ali, he had some of these people thrown into two pits of fire, as has been hinted at by a poet .”
10. All the Shiah scholars have given an account of Ibn Saba, his views and beliefs and his party ; Sayyid Qummi [who died in 301H.], Sheykh Ta’ifah Tusi, Tastri in Qamus al-Rijal, Abbas Qummi in Tuhfat al-Ahbab, Khu Ansari in Raudhat al-Jannat, Sabhani in Nasikh al-Tawarikh and the author of Rawdhat al-Safa, have all mentioned him and his party”.
11. ‘Allamah Shahrastani (may Allah have mercy on him) writes under the heading of Sabaism,
“Sabais are the followers of ‘Abdullah bin Saba who had told Sayyiduna ‘Ali: you are you i.e., you are God, but he had extradited him to Madain The historians suggest that he was actually a Jew, but he had tacked on to himself the label of Islam. During the Jewish phase, he used to claim that Sayyiduna Y’osha bin Nun was the executor of Sayyiduna Moses.”
12. Ibn ‘Asakar has cited a tradition of Sayyiduna Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) in his history,
“When the oath of allegiance was taken at the hand of ‘Ali and he delivered his address, ‘Abdullah bin Saba stood up and said: you are “Dabat al-Ardh.” (Tarikh Dimishq)
13. ‘Allamah Baghdadi has touched the issue in his book Al-Firq Bayn al-Firq. Similarly, Isfaraini in his book Kitab al-Tabsir and Ibn Hazm in Al-Fasl have also mentioned Ibn Saba.
14. Famous Shia scholar Nau Bakhti writes,
“It is known as the Sabai sect because ‘Abdullah bin Saba was its ring leader.” [Khandan-i-Nau-Bakhti, p.275]
15. Historian Professor P.K Hitti writes,
“The enigmatic ‘Abdullah ibn Saba who was converter ed into Islam…embraced ‘Ali with his excessive veneration…” (History of the Arabs, p.248 – London)
16. Famous historian Dwight M. Donaldon writes,
“‘Abdullah ibn Saba had traveled widely throughout the Empire, as Tabari says, “seeking to lead the Moslems into error…Another of his teachings that was more immediately, influential was that every Prophet has a wasi and that ‘Ali was the wasi of Muhammed…” (The Sheit Religion of Islam, Part 6 p.41)
17. Historian Dr. J. N. Hollister writes,
“[‘Abdullah ibn Saba] He was the native of San’a in Yemen…He opened a campaign of behalf of ‘Ali suggesting that Abu Bakar, ‘Umar, and ‘Usman were usurpers…” (Shias of Hind p.15)
18. Famous historian Dr. Walter C. Klein writes,
“‘Abdullah ibn Saba had hailed Ali with the words, “Thou art Thou.”…
(Al-Ibanah al-Usul al-Diyanah, p.7-8)
19 Historian Professor Nicholson writes,
“Now the Shi’ite theory of Divine Right certainly harmonized with Persian ideas, …’Abdullah ibn Saba…went from place to place, seeking to lead Moslems into error…” (The History of the Arabs, p.215)
20. Famous historian and former governor of U.P, India, William Moore writes,
“…Ibn Saba, a Jew from the South of Arabia…he became the setter forth of strange and startling doctrines…’Ali was his legate, ‘Usmsn was a usurper…” (Al-Khilafat, Us ka Uruj, Inhitat aur Zawaal, p.217)
21. The “Jewish Encyclopedia” says,
ABDALLAH IBN SABA
By : Hartwig Hirschfeld
Jew of Yemen, Arabia, of the seventh century, who settled in Medina and embraced Islam. Having adversely criticized Calif Othman’s administration, he was banished from the town. Thence he went to Egypt, where he founded an antiothmanian sect, to promote the interests of Ali. On account of his learning he obtained great influence there, and formulated the doctrine that, just as every prophet had an assistant who afterward succeeded him, Mohammed’s vizier was Ali, who had therefore been kept out of the califate by deceit. Othman had no legal claim whatever to the califate; and the general dissatisfaction with his government greatly contributed to the spread of Abdallah’s teachings. Tradition relates that when Ali had assumed power, Abdallah ascribed divine honors to him by addressing him with the words, “Thou art Thou!” Thereupon Ali banished him to Madain. After Ali’s assassination Abdallah is said to have taught that Ali was not dead but alive, and had never been killed; that a part of the Deity was hidden in him; and that after a certain time he would return to fill the earth with justice. Till then the divine character of Ali was to remain hidden in the imams, who temporarily filled his place. It is easy to see that the whole idea rests on that of the Messiah in combination with the legend of Elijah the prophet. The attribution of divine honors to Ali was probably but a later development, and was fostered by the circumstance that in the Koran Allah is often styled “Al-Ali” [The Most High].
Bibliography: Shahrastani Al-Milal, pp. 132 et seq. (in Haarbrücken’s translation, i. 200-201); Weil, Gesch. der Chalifen, i. 173-174, 209, 259.H. Hir.
I have only quoted few orientalists, but also shown it from authentic ShiaH and Sunni books, the role of ‘Abdullah ibn Saba. Usually the orientalists favor Shiahism and if ‘Abdullah ibn Saba was a fairy tale, so many of the orientalists would not have mentioned him. Even a blind person can’t deny the role Ibn Saba played in the origins of Shiahism. The quote of ‘Allamah ibn Khuldoon was taken from Shia’hs and Shiahism, there Genesis and Evolution, by Allamah Ehsan Elahi Zahir Shahid. He was the author of many books on Shiahs and their history, and later on he was killed by the Shias and was burred in Madinah.Shah Abdul ‘Aziz Dahlawi (may Allah have mercy on him) has also written in details about Ibn Saba in his magnum opus called Tuhfa Ithna Ashariyyah.
And it is narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy on him),
“Abdullah ibn Saba was a Jewish and he [supposedly] accepted Islam during the time of Sayyiduna ‘Usman (may Allah have mercy on him) and he urged the people of Egypt to kill ‘Usman (may Allah have mercy on him) and he would show much love for ‘Ali (may Allah have mercy on him). He was a khabis from inside and his only mission was to create fitnah among the Muslims.” (Musnad Imam-i-A’zam, p.158)
عبد اللّه بن سبا كان يهوديا فاسلم ايام عثمان وهوالذى حمل اهل مصر على قتل عثمان واظهر
الميل الى على وكان خبيث الباطن غرض الفساد بين المسلمين
Another Saying of Sunnis:
Shaykh Abdul Qadir Jaylani (may Allah have mercy on him) says in Ghunyat al-Talibin,
“Sabain sect are attributed towards ‘Abdullah ibn Saba and they said ‘Ali is alive and will come back before Qiyamat.”
واما لسبائية فمنسوبة الى عبداللّه بن سبا من دعوهم ان عليا لم يمت وانه يرجع قبل يوم القيامة
Another Shia Reference and Saying:
Famous Shia scholar ‘Allamah Kashi narrates in his book from one of the Shiah Imam Abu ‘Abdullah (may Allah have mercy on him),
“May Allah curse ‘Abdullah ibn Saba, he said that ‘Ali is God. But ‘Ali was a servant of Allah.”
لعن اللّه عبداللّه بن سبا انه ادعو الربوية فى امير المؤمنين عبدا طالباً
(Qamus al-Rijal, 5:46)
Another Ref: Allamah Shahrastani (may Allah have mercy on him) writes:
“‘Abdullah ibn Saba…was the first person who said that Imamat of ‘Ali (may Allah have mercy on him) is proven from nas.” (Al-Milal wa al-Nahal, 1:174)
اصحاب عبداللّه بن سبا٠٠٠ وهو اول من اظهر القول بالنص بامامة على كرم اللّه وجهه
Another Shia Ref:
Saad Bin ‘Abdullah al-Ash’ari Al-Qummi said:
“Sabians are companions of ‘Abdullah Ibn saba, …… ‘Abdullah bin Saba, was the first who slandered Abu Bakr, ‘Omar, ‘Othman, and the Companions and disowned them.” (Al-Maqalat wal-Firaq, p.20)
Another Sunni Ref:
Shah Waliullah (may Allah have mercy on him) has also written in details about Ibn Saba in his book Izalat al-Khifa.
Since all the Salaf of the historians, Hadith scholars, narrators, did not mention Ibn Sa’ba before the sudden appearance of Sayf bin Amr.
That tells you something.
Furthermore, the Islamic historians, while narrating Sayf’s narrations, have ALWAYS concluded otherwise.
In the book called ‘man hum as-shia’ by a salafi callled Ahmed Jawadu, published by Dar al-Ameer.
It is a refutation of Shia isna Asharis. ( page 46), he gives a list of sunni scholars of late that have denied the existence or details about abdullah bin Saba with regards to originator of Shia isna Asharis.
1. dr. taha hussain in al-fitn al-kubra
2. dr. ali sami an-nishar in al-fikr al-falsafi fil islam
3. dr. hamid hanafi daud in at-tashuo zahira tabiya fi itar ad-dawa al-islamia
4. dr. mohammed kamil hussain in adab misr al-fatimiya
5. abdul aziz al-halabi in his book abudullah bin saba
6. ustaz hasan bin farhan al-maliki has written many articles about his denial.
7. dr. jawad ali in his article of the name abdullah bin saba, issue 6 of almajma alilmi.
8. dr. abdullah samarai in his book al-ghulu wa alfiraq alghaliya fil hidarat alislamiya.
Then he goes on to give a list shia scholars.
Although admits that abdullah bin Saba has no mention in Sihah Sitta or the Matun Araba( four principle texts of shia) but gives a reference from Bukhari on page 37 that indirectly it proves that Hazrat Imam Ali burned the followers of abdullah bin Saba as we see in history!”
Sahih Bukhari- Volume 9, Book 84, Number 57:
Some Zanadiqa were brought to ‘Ali and he burnt them. The news of this event, reached Ibn ‘Abbas who said, “If I had been in his place, I would not have burnt them, as Allah’s Apostle forbade it, saying, ‘Do not punish anybody with Allah’s punishment (fire).’ I would have killed them according to the statement of Allah’s Apostle, ‘Whoever changed his Islamic religion, then kill him.'”
So my brothers and sisters these were the total views and refutations and cross examinings of the issue of ibne saba, and it is proved that although we can not reject the assurance that he do exist in the time of khilafat-e-usmani bcz it has been proven from authentic hadith that Hazrat-e-Ali(ra) ordered to burned them who commits this shirk of calling and making him diety, and they were known as “sabai or sabains”. So this is in itself a proof of existance of ibne saba.Now here i am presenting the words of the utmost famous and favourite of the Shi’ite imam khomeni’s views and let us see what he says about him, is he denying or accepting.I assure you will like it as a final nail in the coffen.
Famous Shia mujtahid and favorite of Khomeni, Allamah Majlisi writes,
وذكر (2) بعض أهل العلم أن عبد الله بن سبا كان يهوديا فأسلم ووالى عليا عليه السلام وكان يقول وهو على يهوديته في يوشع بن نون وصي موسى بالغلو فقال في إسلامه بعد وفاة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في علي عليه السلام مثل ذلك. وكان أول (3) من أشهر بالقول بفرض إمامة علي عليه السلام وأظهر البراءة من أعدائه وكاشف مخالفيه وأكفرهم (4)، فمن ههنا قال من خالف الشيعة: أصل التشيع والرفض مأخوذ من اليهودية.
Some scholars have asserted that Ibn Saba was a Jew who accepted Islam and started voicing his opinion of the wilayah divine appointment of Sayyiduna ‘Ali. While a Jew, he propounded the exaggerated notion that Yusha ibn Nun was divinely appointed to succeed Sayyiduna Musa, he thus adopted a similar stance with regard to Sayyiduna ‘Ali in relation to the Holy Prophet. He was the first to subscribe to the belief of Imamah, and he openly abused his enemies [the first three Caliphs, etc.] and branded them as infidels. Thus our opponents say ‘the origin of Shi’ahs and Rawafid is based on Judaism.”
(Bihar al-Anwar, 25:287)
Many Claim that Abdullah bin Saba is only mentioned in the History of Tabari and that other historians took the narrations from him…well No, you see Tabari wrote his history 300 years after Hijrah However Al thakafi who wrote the book “Al Gharat” also mentions Abdullah ibn Saba, and this guy wrote his history around 250 years after hijrah and he died in 283 hijri, this is also in his history:
(دخل عمرو بن الحمد وحجر بن عدي وحبة العوفي والحارث الاعور وعبد الله بن سبأ على أمير المؤمنين………..)[الغارات ص302]
“Amro bin al hamd, Hajar bin Uday, Habbah al Awfy, Al harith al A’awar and ABDULLAh IBN SABA all entered on the Ameer al Mumineen…” (Al gharat 302).
Al Nawbakhty was alive before or During Tabari’s life and he writes:
a Sabaism are the first to calims of Ali’s Imamah, and they said it’s from Allah. they are the companions of Abdullah Ibn Saba which was the first to rejects Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Sahaba. and Ibn Saba calimed that he had been ordered that from Ali. Then, Ali asked him about it and he confessed. then Ali ordered the execution of Ibn Saba.
(Feraq Al-Shia page 19-20)
Also Al Kashshi, al tusi, Al Helli, al Qummi, Al Khawansary, Al namaqany, Al Mirza, al testeri All write narrations about Ibn Saba and that he was the first to show enmity & hate towards the first three caliphs, here’s a sample:
from “Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih” one of the main four Shiite books written by Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Ali ibn Babawaih al-Qummi, commonly known as Ibn Babawaih or Al-Shaykh al-Saduq who died in 381 hijri:
“and Ali said: when somone ends his pray, he have to rise his hand, and then Abdullah Ibn Saba said, for what ? isn’t Allah in every where…”
Al nashi’i al akbar الناشيء الأكبر who died in 293 hijri also writes in Masa’el al imamah Page 22-23 :
عن ابن سبأ وطائفته ما يلي :” وفرقة زعموا أن عليا – رضي الله عنه – حي لم يمت وأنه لا يموت حتى يسوق العرب بعصاه ، وهؤلاء هم السبئية أصحاب عبد الله بن سبأ ، وكان عبد الله بن سبأ رجلا من أهل صنعاء يهوديا ، وسكن المدائن ….”
About ibn Saba and his followers: ” A group claimed that Ali RAA is alive and will not die until he drives the Arabs away with his stick, those are the Saba’ite followers of Abdullah Ibn Saba. This Man was from sana’a (yemen) and was a Jew who lived in Mada’en.
Al Qummi who died in 301 hijri said that Abdullah Ibn Saba was the first to show hatred and enmity for the first three Caliphs and he disassociated himself from them and claimed that ali ordered it (Al Qummi, al Maqalat wal Firaq P20).
Al Tusi (460Hijri) said that Ibn Saba returned to kufr and showed ghulu (Tahtheeb al ahkam 2/322)
Al helli who died in 740 Hijri and wrote the first shiite books about the science of Rijal/Hadith, he said that Ibn Saba is Weak so you can’t narrate from him, As for the Shiite Zaidi scholar Ibn al mutaraddi (died 840 hijri) he said that ibn Saba was the first to announce the News of Imamah/Wilayah of Ali to the people.
As for Majlisi and his Biharu’l Anwar here are some locationes where he mentions Abdullah Ibn Saba:
25/286 (three narrations)
here’s a link to Al Majlisi’s book bihar al Anwar if we wanna verify, let’s take the first one (2/217):
كش : سعد ، عن محمد بن خالد الطيالسي ، عن ابن أبي نجران ، عن ابن
سنان قال : قال أبوعبدالله عليه السلام : إنا أهل بيت صادقون لانخلو من كذاب يكذب علينا
ويسقط صدقنا بكذبه علينا عند الناس ، كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله أصدق البرية لهجة وكان
مسيلمة يكذب عليه ، وكان أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام أصدق من برأالله من بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله
وكان الذي يكذب عليه ويعمل في تكذيب صدقه بما يفتري عليه من الكذب عبدالله
ابن سبا لعنه الله
Translation: Kish: Sa’ed from muhammad bin Khaled al tayalisi from ibn Abu Najran from Ibn Sinan: Imam Abu abdullah Said: we ahlulBayt are truthful but there are liars who attribute false sayings to us to misguide the people (So True hehe) , the prophet PBUH was truthful but Musaylama the liar attributed lies to him, Ameer Ali RAA was most truthful person after the prophet PBUH but he who attributed Lies to him was the cursed Abdullah Ibn Saba*
Note by the Author of the book regarding “Abdullah Ibbn Saba” on same page(217):
( هامش ص 217 ) ( 1 ) روى الكشى في ص 70 روايات كثيرة تدل على ذمه ولعنه . وكل من ترجمه من الشيعة لعنوه
وأبرؤوا من مقالته الباطلة في أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام ، وهذا هو الذى استتابه أميرالمؤمنين عليه السلام
ثلاثة أيام فلم يتب فأحرقه بالنار .
Translation of note: “Al Kashshi in page 70 narrates plenty of hadiths about cursing Ibn Saba, and all those Shiite scholars who put his name in thier books of Hadith had cursed him as well because of his false sayings about the Ameer of believers Ali RAA, this is the man whom Ali RAA had asked to repent for three days but he didn’t so Ali burned Him with fire.”
As for the guy called “dbzClips”, well Mr,Dragon Ball do you see “Syf ibn Umr” in your chain of Narrators above? hehe you don’t thus We can easily prove ibn Saba exists from your own books as you just saw.
On the same Page I saw another interesting Hadith i’ll translate it so you can have a laugh at those funny shiite scholars:
ل : الطالقاني ، عن الجلودي ، عن محمدبن زكريا ، عن جعفر بن محمد بن
عمارة قال : سمعت جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام يقول : ثلاثة كانوا يكذبون على رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله
أبوهريرة ، وأنس بن مالك ، وامرأة .
بيان : يعني عائشة .
Translation: ” Al taliqani from al Jouloudi from muhammad bin Zakariah from Jaa’afar bin muhammad bin Ammar: i heard Ja’afar al Sadiq PBUH say: Three used to attribute lies to the prophet PBUH, Abu Hurairah, Anas Bin Malik, and a Woman.
note on bottom of Page: He Means Aisha.” (bihar al anwar 2/217).
Funny thing is the Shiites used to narrate sayings about imamah from Abu huraira RAA but when they saw that he narrated 36,000 Hadiths for the Mainstream muslims they stopped attributing lies to him and started calling him a Liar hehe.
Some Twelver Shiite sources proving the existence of ibn Saba:
و من المصادر الشيعية التي تؤكد شخصية بن سبأ:
1 – رسالة الإرجاء للحسن بن محمد بن الحنفية وقد رواها عن الثقات من الرجال عند الشيعة 0 وهذه الرسالة مخطوطة في دار الكتب الظاهرية في آخر كتاب الإيمان لمحمد بن يحيى العدني ( مجموع 104 ) 0 وانظر تاريخ التراث العربي ( 1 / 210 ) 0
2 – كتاب الغارات للثقفي الأصفهاني وهو ومطبوع انجمن آثار ملي إيران 0
3 – كتاب المقالات والفرق للأشعري القمي وهو مطبوع في إيران سنة 1963 م 0
4 – فرق الشيعة للنوبختي عن القرن الثالث الهجري 0 ط / كاظم الكتبي في النجف عدة طبعات 0 وطبعة المستشرق ريتر في استانبول عام 1931 م 0
5 – رجال الكشي للكشي 0 ط / مؤسسة الأعلمي للمطبوعات كربلاء 0
6 – رجال الطوسي لأبي جعفر الطوسي 0 ط / النجف 1381 هـ / نشر محمد كاظم الكتبي 0
7 – شرح ابن أبي الحديد لنهج البلاغة 0 ط / الأولى الميمنية 1326 هـ 0
8 – الرجال للحلي 0 ط / طهران 1311 هـ / وطبعة النجف 1961 م 0
9 – روضات الجنان للخوانساري ط 0 / إيران 1307
10 – تنقيح المقال في أحوال الرجال للمامقاني 0 ط / النجف في المطبعة المرتضوية 0
11 – قاموس الرجال للتستري 0 منشورات مركز نشر الكتاب طهران 1382 هـ0
12 – ( روضة الصفا ) تاريخ عند الشيعة معتمد بالفارسية ج 2 / ص 292 طبعة إيران
13 – دائرة المعارف المسماة بـــ ( مقتبس الأثر ومجدد مادثر ) للأعلمي الحائري 0 ط / 1388 هـ بالمطبعة العلمية / قم 0
14 – الكنى والألقاب للقمي 0 ط / العرفان بصيدا 0
15 – حل الإشكال لابن طاووس .
16 – الرجال لابن داود .
17- التحرير الطاووس للعاملي .
18 – مجمع الرجال للقهبائي المؤلف سنة 1016 هـ
19 – نقد الرجال للتفرشي المؤلف سنة 1015 هـ
20 – جامع الرواة للأردبيلي المؤلف سنة 1100 هـ
21 – موسوعة البحار للمجلسي
There are many Rawafida who says: Abdullah ibn saba is actually the character built up by ahle-sunnah to support the false claims against rafidi shia’s!
But lets see what shia books & there ulema’s said about this man i.e. abdullah ibn saba?
Here are some sahih traditions in shia books & opinion of the ulema regarding the jew abdullah ibn saba:
These are the three Saheeh (with 7 different sahih isnaads) hadeeth regarding Ibn Saba:
حدثني محمد بن قولويه، قال حدثني سعد بن عبد الله، قال حدثنا يعقوب بن يزيد و محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، قال : سمعت أبا عبد الله (عليه السلام) يقول و هو يحدث أصحابه بحديث عبد الله بن سبإ و ما ادعى من الربوبية في أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب، فقال إنه لما ادعى ذلك فيه استتابه أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) فأبى أن يتوب فأحرقه بالنار.
Hishaam bin Salim, who said that he heard it from Imam Aboo `Abd Allaah (AS) when he told that `Abd Allaah bin Saba called (to people) the divinity of Imaam `Alee (AS). Upon that ‘Alee ordered him to repent, but he refused. Then Ali let him burn in fire.”
Source: Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 108, hadeeth # 171
حدثني محمد بن قولويه قال حدثني سعد بن عبد الله قال حدثنا يعقوب بن يزيد و محمد بن عيسى عن علي بن مهزيار عن فضالة بن أيوب الأزدي عن أبان بن عثمان قال سمعت أبا عبد الله (ع) يقول لعن الله عبد الله بن سبإ إنه ادعى الربوبية في أمير المؤمنين (ع) و كان و الله أمير المؤمنين (ع) عبدا لله طائعا الويل لمن كذب علينا و إن قوما يقولون فينا ما لا نقوله في أنفسنا نبرأ إلى الله منهم نبرأ إلى الله منهم.
I heard Aboo ‘Abd Allaah(as) saying: ‘May Allah curse Abdallah bin Saba’, he claimed a divineship for Amirul-Mu’mineen (Ali) [as]. By Allah, Amierul-Mu’mineen [as] was volunterily the slave of Allah. Woe to him who lie about us, for there are people who say about us what we don’t say about ourselves, we clear ourselves to Allah from them, we clear ourselves to Allah from them’.”
Source: Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 108, hadeeth # 172
و بهذا الإسناد عن يعقوب بن يزيد عن ابن أبي عمير. و أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى عن أبيه و الحسين بن سعيد عن ابن أبي عمير عن هشام بن سالم عن أبي حمزة الثمالي قال قال علي بن الحسين (ع) لعن الله من كذب علينا إني ذكرت عبد الله بن سبإ فقامت كل شعرة في جسدي لقد ادعى أمرا عظيما ما له لعنه الله كان علي (ع) و الله عبدا لله صالحا أخو رسول الله (ص) ما نال الكرامة من الله إلا بطاعته لله و لرسوله و ما نال رسول الله (ص) الكرامة من الله إلا بطاعته.
‘May the curse of Allah be upon those who tell lies about us. I mentioned Abdullah Ibn Saba and each hair in my body stood up, Allah cursed him. Ali was, by Allah, a proper servant of Allah, the brother of the Messenger of Allah . He did not earn the graciousness/honor from Allah except with the obedience to Allah and His Messenger. And (similarly) the Messenger of Allah did not earn the honor from Allah except with his obedience to Allah’.”
Source: Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 108-109, hadeeth # 173
Now, lets see what al-kashee understood by these sahih hadiths, here is the opinion of shia alim al-kashee regarding ibn saba:
ذكر بعض أهل العلم أن عبد الله بن سبإ كان يهوديا فأسلم و والى عليا (ع) و كان يقول و هو على يهوديته في يوشع بن نون وصي موسى بالغلو فقال في إسلامه بعد وفاة رسول الله (ص) في علي (ع) مثل ذلك و كان أول من شهر بالقول بفرض إمامة علي و أظهر البراءة من أعدائه و كاشف مخالفيه و أكفرهم فمن هاهنا قال من خالف الشيعة أصل التشيع و الرفض مأخوذ من اليهودية.
Some people of knowledge mentioned that Abdullah bin Saba’ was a Jew, who embraced Islam and supported Ali. While he was still a Jew, he used to go to extremism in calling Yousha’ bin Noon as the appointee (successor) of Moses, thus after embracing Islam – after the demise of the Messenger of Allah [pbuh&hf] – he said the like about Ali. It was him who first publicly announced the mandatory Iamamah for Ali, rejected and disowned his enemies, debated his opponents and called them Kafirs. Hence, those who oppose the Shi’ites often say: The Shi’ites and Rejectors (Rafidah) have their roots in Judaism “.
Source: Al-Kashee, Rijaal, pg. 109
So now abdullah ibn saba is no-more a unknown person accused by rafida’s.
(Collected by http://islamistruth.wordpress.com/2010/07/05/abdullah-ibn-saba/ during my research)
Now here i will try to gave information about the famous al-islam shi’ite site and their allegations this is compile work of many people and i am not taking its full responsibility, i am just showing both to the Sunnis/Shias that what is the issue of ibn-e-saba and later after reading all this research work, you opinions are accpeted by me with very respect (whatever opinion you may have).So dont take it in secterian sense regarding this article.
Regarding the Shia argument about Seif ibn ‘Umar being the only narrator who narrates about ‘Abdullah ibn Saba, I will quote the famous Shia website “al-Islam” that said in their article called “Abdullah Ibn Saba (Part I)”:
The fabricated stories around the character of Abdullah Ibn Saba are the malicious production of one of the disciples of the devil, namely Sayf Ibn Umar al-Tamimi.
They wrote in their article “Abdullah Ibn Saba (Part II)”:
Ibn Saba did not exist at that time, not even in the imagination of Saif Ibn Umar al-Tamimi who invented this character.
I say: Here is Not just one or two But EIGHT different narrations about ‘Abdullah ibn Saba in the books of Ahlul-Sunnah [Tareekh Madinat Dimashq of Ibn ‘Asakir] which do not contain Seif ibn ‘Umar in the Sanad:
1- أخبرنا أبو البركات الأنماطي ، أنا أبو طاهر احمد بن الحسن وأبو الفضل أحمد بن الحسن ، قالا : أنا عبد الملك بن محمد بن عبد الله أنا أبو علي بن الصواف ، نا محمد بن عثمان بن أبي شيبة ، نا محمد ابن العلاء ، نا أبو بكر بن عياش ، عن مجالد ، عن الشعبي قال : أول من كذب عبد الله بن سبأ .
2- قرأنا على أبي عبد الله يحي بن الحسن ، عن أبي الحسين ابن الأبنوسي ، أنا أحمد بن عبيد بن الفضل ، وعن أبي نعيم محمد بن عبد الواحد ابن عبد العزيز ، أنا علي بن محمد بن خزفة قالا : نا محمد بن الحسين ، نا ابن أبي خيثمة ، نا محمد بن عباد ، نا سفيان ، عن عمار الدهني قال : سمعت أبا الطفيل يقول : رأيت المسيب بن نجبة أتى به طببه يعنى ابن السوداء وعلي على المنبر فقال علي : ما شأنه؟ فقال : يكذب على الله وعلى رسوله .
3 – أخبرنا أبو القاسم يحي بن بطريق بن بشرى وأبو محمد عبد الكريم ابن حمزة قالا : أنا أبو الحسين بن مكي ، أنا أبو القاسم المؤمل بن أحمد بن محمد الشيباني ، نا يحيى بن محمد بن صاعد، نا بندار ، نا محمد بن جعفر ، نا شعبة ، عن سلمة ، عن زيد بن وهب عن علي قال : مالي وما لهذا الحميت الأسود ؟ قال: ونا يحي بن محمد ، نا بندار ، نا محمد بن جعفر ، نا شعبة عن سلمة قال: سمعت أبا الزعراء يحدث عن علي عليه السلام قال: مالي وما لهذا الحميت الأسود؟
4 – أخبرنا أبو محمد بن طاوس وأبو يعلى حمزة بن الحسن بن المفرج ، قالا: أنا أبو القاسم بن أبي العلاء ، نا أبو محمد بن أبي نصر ، أنا خيثمة بن سليمان ، نا أحمد بن زهير بن حرب ، نا عمرو بن مرزوق أنا شعبة ، عن سلمة بن كهيل عن زيد قال : قال علي بن أبي طالب : مالي ولهذا الحميت الأسود ؟ يعني عبد الله ابن سبأ وكان يقع في أبي بكر وعمر.
5- أنبأنا أبو عبد الله بن أحمد بن إبراهيم أبن الخطاب ، أنا أبو القاسم علي بن محمد بن علي الفارسي ، وأخبرنا أبو محمد عبد الرحمن بن أبي الحسين بن إبراهيم الداراني ، أنا سهل بن بشر ، أنا أبو الحسن علي بن منير بن أحمد بن منير الخلال قالا : أنا القاضي أبو الطاهر محمد بن أحمد بن عبدالله الذهلي ، نا أبو أحمد ابن عبدوس نا محمد بن عباد ، نا سفيان ، نا عبد الجبار بن العباس الهمداني ، عن سلمة بن كهيل عن حجية بن عدي الكندي قال :رأيت . عليا كرم الله وجهه وهو على المنبر وهو يقول من يعذرني من هذا الحميت الأسود الذي يكذب على الله وعلى الرسول يعني أبن السوداء لولا أن لا يزال يخرج عليَّ عصابة تنعي عليَّ دمه كما ادعيت علي دماء أهل النهر لجعلت منهم ركاما .
6- أخبرنا أبو المظفر بن القشيرى ، أنا أبو سعد الجنزروذى ، أنا أبوعمرو ابن حمدان ، وأخبرنا أبو سهل محمد بن إبراهيم بن سعدويه ، أنا أبو يعلى الموصلي ، نا أبو كريب محمد بن العلاء الهمداني , نا محمد أبن الحسن الأسدى ، نا هارون بن صالح الهمداني ، عن الحارث أبن عبد الرحمن عن أبي الجلاس ، قال : سمعت عليا يقول لعبد الله السبئي : ويلك والله ما أفضي إلي بشيء كتمه أحداً من الناس ، ولقد سمعته يقول : أن بين يدي الساعة ثلاثين كذابا وإنك لا حدهم . قالا : وانا أبو يعلى ، نا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ، نا محمد أبن الحسن ، زاد أبن المقرىء الأسدي بإسناده مثله .
7- أخبرنا أبو بكر أحمد بن المظفر بن الحسين بن سوسن التمار في كتابة ، وأخبرني أبو طاهر محمد بن محمد بن عبد الله السبخي بمرو ، عنه ، أنا أبو علي بن شاذان ، نا أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الله بن يونس أبو الأحوص عن مغيرة عن سماك قال : بلغ عليا أن ابن السواد ينتقض أبا بكر وعمر ، فدعا به ودعا بالسيف أو قال فهم بقتله فكلم فيه فقال : لايساكني ببلد أنا فيه ، قال : فسير إلى المدائن .
8 – أنبأنا أبو بكر محمد بن طرخان بن بلتكين بن يحكم ، أنا أبو الفضائل محمد أبن أحمد بن عبد الباقي بن طوق ، قال : قرىء على أبي القاسم عبيدالله ابن علي أبن عبيد الله الرقي ، نا أبو أحمد عبيد الله بن محمد أبن أبى مسلم ، أنا أبو عمر محمد بن عبد الواحد ، أخبرني الغطافي ، عن رجاله ، عن الصادق عن آبائه الطاهرين عن جابر قال : لما بويع علي خطب الناس فقام إليه عبد الله بن سبأ فقال له : أنت دابة الأرض ، قال فقال له : اتق الله ، فقال له : أنت الملك ، فقال له : اتق الله ، فقال له : أنت خلقت الخلق ، وبسطت الرزق ، فأمر بقتله ، فاجتمعت الرافضة فقالت : دعه وانفه إلى ساباط المدائن فإنك إن قتلته بالمدينة خرجت أصحابه علينا وشيعته ، فنفاه إلي ساباط المدائن فثم القرامطة والرافضة ، قال : ثم قامت إليه طائفة وهم السبئية وكانوا أحد عشر رجلا فقال أرجعوا فإني علي بن أبي طالب أبي مشهور وأمي مشهورة ، وانا أبن عم محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم فقالوا لا نرجع ، دع داعيك فأحرقهم بالنار ، وقبورهم في صحراء أحد عشر مشهورة فقال من بقي ممن لم يكشف رأسه منهم علينا : أنه إله ، واحتجوا بقول ابن عباس : ” لا يعذب بالنار إلا خالقها ” . قال ثعلب : وقد عذب بالنار قبل علي أبو بكر الصديق شيخ الإسلام رضي الله عنه وذاك أنه رفع إليه رجل يقال له : الفجأة وقالوا إنه شتم النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم بعد وفاته ، فأخرجه إلى الصحراء فأحرقه بالنار . قال فقال ابن عباس : قد عذب أبو بكر بالنار فاعبدوه أيضا.
Sheikh Suleiman bin Hamad al-‘Auwdah grades the narrations in his book “‘Abdullah bin Sabaa wa Atharuhu fi Ahdath al-Fitnah fi Sadr al-Islam”
“عبد الله بن سبأ و أثره في أحداث الفتنة في صدر الإسلام “
1st: al-Shu’ubi says:” ‘Abdullah ibn Saba was the first who lied. “
Grading: Da’eef, because of Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman ibn abi Shaybah.
2nd: ‘Ali asked al-Museeb ibn Najbah about ibn al-Sawdaa ‘Abdullah ibn Saba and he replied: “He lies upon Allah and his prophet.”
3rd: ‘Ali ibn abi Talib (ra) says: “What does this black man want from me?” meaning ibn Sabaa.
Grading: It Is actually two different narrations, both have the same Sanad except for one of them is from Abu al-Zara’ah and one is from Zaid ibn Wahb and both narrations are Sahih.
4th: ‘Ali ibn abi Talib (ra) says: “What does this black man want from me? meaning ‘Abdullah ibn Sabaa and he used to attack Abu Bakr and ‘Umar.”
Grading: Has a good Sanad of trustworthy narrators.
5th: ‘Ali ibn abi Talib (ra) said: “Who will excuse me of this black man -meaning ibn al-Sawdaa – who lies upon Allah and his Prophet?”
6th: ‘Ali ibn abi Talib (ra) tells ibn Sabaa: “Woe to you! by Allah he(prophet SAWS) did not tell me anything that he kept hidden from others, I heard him say that from now until the hour there will be thirty liars and you are one of them.”
Grading: Some of the narrators have been criticized but it has been narrated through several other chains with better narrators.
7th: al-Sammak says: It had reached ‘Ali that ibn al-Sawdaa was attacking Abu Bakr and ‘Umar so he called on him and he called for a sword but they talked him out of killing him so he said: “By Allah he will never live with me in the same city” and he was exiled to al-Madaen.
Grading: Has trustworthy narrators but al-Sammak who is a follower in al-Kufa could not have heard it directly from ‘Ali.
8th: ‘Ali stood as a Khateeb amongst the people after baya’ah then ibn Sabaa went to him and said: You are the beast of the earth, Ali said: fear Allah! so ibn Saba said: You are al-Malik, Ali said: Fear Allah! so ibn Saba said: you created the creations and offered the bounties, So ‘Ali ordered that he be killed but the Rafidhah told ‘Ali: leave him be it is better if you exile him to al-Madaen in Yemen otherwise his Shias and followers will rebel against us…until the end of the narration.
Grading: All narrators are trustworthy except for one unknown narrator called al-Ghattafi who has not been documented, could be a mistake in copying the name.
As for Seif ibn ‘Umar it’s not that he is a liar some of his narrations in History are true but he is more of a story-teller as in he narrates the event without regard to accuracy of words but in the form of a fun story which is why as a narrator of Prophetic Hadith his narrations are rejected by consensus, here are some examples:
al-Nisa’i (d. 303 AH) wrote: “Sayf’s narrations are weak and they should be disregarded because he was unreliable and untrustworthy.”
Yahya Ibn Mueen (d. 233 AH) wrote: “Sayf’s narrations are weak and useless.”
Abu Hatam (d. 277 AH) wrote: “Sayf’s Hadith is rejected.”
Ibn Abi Hatam (d. 327 AH) wrote: “Scholars have abandoned Sayf’s narrations.”
al-Suyuti (d. 900 AH) wrote: “Sayf’s Hadith is weak.”
But when it comes to Historical narrations what he says is taken into consideration unlike what the Shia claimed.
Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani says about him in Taqreeb al-Tahtheeb 1/344:
ابن حجر في تقريب التهذيب ( 1/344 ): (عمدة في التاريخ)
“Relied upon in history.”
al-Dhahabi says about him in Meezan al-I’itidal 2/255:
الذهبي في ميزان الاعتدال (2/255): (كان إخباريا عارفا).
“He was a knowledgeable historian.”
For this reason the scholars have placed certain rules to accepting any narration from Seif ibn ‘Umar:
1- What he says needs to have a Sahih foundation in the books of Hadith(i.e Sahih al-Bukhari) and it has to be taken from the reliable historical sources(i.e Tareekh al-Tabari).
2- His narrations must not have anything related to ‘Aqeedah and matters of Halal and Haram.
3- His narrations must be free from any attacks on any of the companions.
4- His narration must not be biased towards certain well known political positions during the rightly-guided caliphate.
Ref: Another Shia Hadith with a good chain about the followers of Ibn Saba:
A group came to Ameer Al-Mu’mineen ‘Ali, and they said to him: “Peace be upon you, Our Lord (rabbanaa)! So he asked for their repentance, but they did not repent. So he dug a ditch for them and lit a fire in it and dug a ditch to its other side and conveyed between them. So when they did not repent he threw them in the ditch and lit in the other ditch until they died.
1. Al-Kulayni, Al-Kaafi, vol. 7, pg. 258-259, hadeeth # 18
1. Al-Majlisi said this hadeeth is Hasan (Good)
à Mir’aat Al-`Uqool, vol. 23, pg. 401
May Allah guide us all to the true faith of Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jam’at and Give us courage to do more and more to tell them the Truth and fulfil our real duty to save ummah from deviant sects. I am very respectfull and thankful to all brothers and sisters specially tripolysunni and aminah al-alawi for giving me such useful informative content. This is dedicated to those two beautiful people. Thankyou for you time and Reading. Fe amanullah.