Knowledge of Tafseer (exegesis of Quran and its knowledge)
In 2nd and 3rd Hijri (Islamic calendar) a lots of work has been done on this subject, in the start of 2nd century, people write this impressive work and the first Tafseer of the Quran was written and the writer was Hazrat Sufyan Ibn Uyena, in the series of 3rd Hijri Year the famous exegesis were written like Tafseer Ibne Jarir, Tafseer Ibne Abi Hatim and Tafseer Ibne Munzr as well as Tafsir-al-Tustari which is also worth to know about.
When we put a brief analysis we find that during 5th to 8th century of Islamic Hijra there we will find a lots of impressive and authentic work on the subject of exegesis which are called Tafa’seer in arabic,persian and urdu languages.
here is a short summary
1) Muaalam al tanzeel Baghawi By Imam Baghwai (abu Muhammad Hussain) rta in 516 H
2) Al-Jaame’y By Hafiz Abulqasim ismail isbahani (rta) 535 H
3) Tafseer al kashaaf By Allama Mahmood Zamakhshari (rta) 538 H
4) Zaad al Masseer By AbulFarj AbdurRehman i-e Famous Ibn al Jawzi (rta) 597 H
5) Tafseer al Kabeer (mafateeh al ghaib) By Imam Fakhudin Raazi (rta) 606 H
6) Al Tabsira By Imam Mofiqudin Kuwashi Moosli (rta) 680 H
7) Anwar al Tanzeel By Qadi Imam Naa’sirudin Bedawi Shaa’fie (rta) 685 H
8) Madarkal Tanzil By Imam Abdullah bin Ahmad Nasafi (rta) 710 H
9) Tabsirat-u-Rehman By Imam Sheikh Zainudin Ali (rta) 710 H
10) Ghara’ib al Quran By Allama Nizaamudin Hassan Qasmi Nishapuri (rta) 750 H
11) Lubab al taawil fi Ma’ani al tanzeel By Sheikh Alawodeen Ali Baghdaadi (rta) 741 H
12) Tafseer isbahani By Shamsudin al wal’thna Shafie al isbahani (rta) 749 H
13) Taaweelat e Quran (tavilat-e-kashani) By Sheikh Kamaludin Kashi Samarqandi (rta) 887 H
14) Tafsir ibn Kathir By Imam Hafiz abulfida’ Ismail Qarshi damishqi (rta) 774 H
15) Tanveer al miqyas By Abu Tahir Muhammad Bin Yaqood Ferozabadi (rta) 817 H
16) Nazm al durar By Sheikh Burhanudeen Baqai (rta) 885 H
17) Aldur al Man(t)soor wa Tafseer al Jalalayn By Hafiz Jalaludin Abdurehman Suyuoti (rta) 911 H
(In this list the Scholars of Al Undalas ‘s tafaseers are not included, this list contaiins the majority of Mufasireens (scholars) of Arabs and Non – Arabs and from Sham and Iraq, these all exegesis which we read here are from 5th to 9th Hijri, this certainly does not mean that the process of writing exegesis are ended up ney rather this is continuously going on and with the help of Allah (shanuhu wa ta’ala) there has been a lot of work done in in do-pak subcontinent. Further more this is only a summary of 2nd-to 9th hijri era and work on tafaseers.
Now let us see about the Knowledge of 2nd Biggest Source of Islamic Shariya laws i-e
The Collections and Famous Collectors of Knowledge of Hadith !
Hadith is the Sunnah , Hadith is the sayings of Our beloved Prophet alehisalam which was gathered and collected and kept save in hearts and in written forms, the actions of Prophet alehisalam is called Sunnah its verbal form is Hadith. On this knowledge as just like the knowledge of Tafsirs many authentic work was done in the era of Banu Abbas, Abbasyian era and after its melting, still was very much work out on this subject by many people. Here the point has to be noted that although which work was done in this regard in the early 2nd and third centuries has got a dominant popularity and scholarly work does never get again in other coming centuries of time. So the famous Siha’ Sitta (Utmost Authentic Books of Hadith Collections) was compiled in 3rd Hijri Year, then in 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th centuries were also consists of work on Hadith subject, although there were tribulations and problems in each and every century having in itself) but still some major Scholars were like a Sun spreading its rays on the darkness few of them are here
1) Ali Ibn Omer Darqutni in 385 H
2) Muhammad B. Ishaq B. Khuzaima in 311 H
3) Abdulrehman B. Abi Hatim in 371 H.
4) Ahmad B. Abdullah abu-nuaim isbahani in 430 H.
5) Ahmad B. Qaani in 425 H.
6) Ali B. Ahmad 457 H.
7) Ahmad B. Hussain Biheqi in 458 H.
8) Ahmad B. Thabit Khuteeb Baghdadi in 483 H.
9) Abdurehman B. Mnda iin 470 H.
10) Hussain B. Mas’uod albandi in 516 H.
11) Abul Qaasim Ali B. Asaakar in 571 H.
12) Abdurehman Al Jawzi in 597H.
13) Abdurehman Abu Shaima 665 H.
14) Abul Hassan Ali B. Ahmad al Balkhi in 690 H.
15) Abdulmo’min B. Khalf al damyati in 705 H.
16) Muhamad B. Ahmad Al Dhabi in 748 H.
17) Mughaltai B. Qaleeh in 762 H.
18) Sirajudin Umar Balqni in 805 H.
19) Shamsudin Muhammad bin Muhammad Al Jazri in 823 H.
20) Al Sha’hab Ahmad b. Ali b. Hajr Asqalani 852H.
21) Muhammad B. Abdurehman Al Sakhawi in 902 H.
22) Abdurehman Jalal-ad-din Suyuoti in 911 H.
23) Ahmad B. Muhammad Qastalani in 923 H.
24) Abdurehman B. Ali al Zubaydi in 942 H.
Many among them (may Allah please with them all) were having the status of Tab’iun, (companion of the companions), they learned everything from Sahaba and they memorize it and write it down for “us” the comming generations so and made rules and regulations for the process of authentication the knowledge of Hadith,i-e Types of ahadith, their kinds, and other knowledge like knowledge of narrators i-e the chain of narration and Jir’ah Wa Tadeel were decided and implemented and ruled. So that we are now able to know that which saying is more authentic which is lesser and which is fabricated and wrong. All of them were Muqallads, most of them were Sha’fie and Malikis later Hanbali and Hanafi scholars also added impressive work in this regard. So those people who are objecting taqlid and other issues. May Allah save us from the deviant sects like Wahabi/Salafi/Ahlu Hadith/Deobandis/Rawafids. Those all try to object everything and their ignorance is shown by their views that they want authentic hadith proof of everything but the point is that if you do not do a “Taqlid” then you also have no right to ask for authenticity or any other way of hadith because this knowledge has been tranfered from top to the bottom step by step and with all checking and re-checkings so that now you “objectors” are able to reject or to accept ahadith. The knowledge of Chain of narrations is by itself a chains of taqleed bc’z every Imam scholar has derived from their roots i-e one is quoting chain which he heard from authentic sources of his elders who again listen that from Sahaba’ who again learn all about the issues from the Action or Verbal form from the Prophet alehisalam himself. There is not a single Imam who is not doing taqlid but that time’s taqlid was more expressive and many among the high ranked scholars were by themself of utmost status of knowledge and learning and was having Higher ranks in this knowledge like a hujjats, So there were not only they were in type of taqlid but also they were having the authority to argue and to gave a decree on the basis of their own knowledge. And this was the beauty that if someone was got any mistake he was assure that there are several others who can point out the issue if it is not correct according to Quran and Sunnah (i-e hadith) and the accepted and general interpretation of the words by the Ummah. Those all are called Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jam’at and These knowledge fountains are known as Salaf’Saawliheen.
Neither anyone among them was having the ideas and wrong beliefs of what now a days tableeghi jamats and Wahabi movements under many flags and names e.g, Jamat-e-islami, Jamiyat e ulma e islam, Tableeghi jamat, Jamat ahle hadith, Salafi movements, Deobandi movements etc etc are having. May Allah gave us right knowledge on the way of Shariya and gave us wisdom of Tareeqa as those learned scholars were. Amin
(Courtesy: Zarlish K. Afridi on 2/2/2013)
Allah knows the best!!!