Concept of Predestination in Islam


Question : what does predestined means in Islam?

1.The root of qadar is qadara. In Arabic it is said “Qadartu ash-shay’a qadran (or qadaran) (I evaluated the thing),” if one knows its quantity and other attributes. (Fath al-Baari by Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani, 1/118, Cited in Umar Al Ashqar, Divine Will and Predestination in the Light of Quran and Sunnah, p 33)

In Arabic, qadar means decree, judgement, ultimate destiny. Taqdeer means to think about how to sort things out. (Al Qaamoos al-Muheet by Al-Fayroozabaadi, p. 591, Cited in Umar Al Ashqar, Divine Will and Predestination in the Light of Quran and Sunnah, p 33)

In a technical sense, qadar means, “something of which there was prior knowledge, one of the things which was written by the Pen when it wrote down everything that was going to happen for the rest of eternity, when Allah decreed the affairs of all His creation and what would happen before it happened. He knew that these things would happen at certain times that were known to Him, and in specific ways, and so things happen in the way that He has decreed. (‘Aqeedat as-Safaareeni, 1/348, Cited in Umar Al Ashqar, Divine Will and Predestination in the Light of Quran and Sunnah, p 33)

The truth is that the existence of this universe and every creature in it clearly indicates that Allah had knowledge of it before He created it. “For it is impossible that He could create these things without knowing about them, because He creates things by His Will, and will requires a preconceived idea about the desired thing. This preconceived idea about the desired thing is knowledge of the desired thing. So creation requires will and will requires knowledge, so creation requires knowledge.” (Sharh at-Tahaawiyah)

Moreover, “The created beings which exist in it are made in a proper and perfect manner which implies that the One Who made them must have knowledge of the, because such perfect work could not have been done by one who has no knowledge” (Sharh at-Tahaawiyah)

Hadith

Ibn `Umar (ra ) said: “By Him in Whose Hand is the soul of Ibn `Umar, if anyone possessed gold as much as the mountain of Uhud and spent it in Allah’s cause, Allah (swt ) would not accept it from him unless he believed in Allah’s Qadr.” Then he (saas ) cited as evidence the words of the Prophet (saas ): “Eemaan (faith) is to believe in (i) Allah (swt ), (ii) His angels, (iii) His revealed Books, (iv) His Messengers, (v) the Day of Resurrection and (vi) Al-Qadr, both the good and bad of it.”

[ Muslim] 


From Sharh Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Aqida Tahawi, by Shaykh Ninowi , both available online .

لق الله تعالى الخلق سليماً من الكفر والإيمان, ثم خاطبهم وأمرهم ونهاهم فكفر من آفر بفعله وإنكاره وجحوده
الحق بخذلان الله تعالى إياه, وآمن من آمن بفعله وإقراره وتتصديقه بتوفيق الله تعالى إياه ونصرته له

Allah Ta’ala created the creation free of both belief and disbelief, and then He addressed them commanding and prohibiting them. Some people committed blasphemy through actions, denial and disbelief in the truth by Allah abandoning them. Those who believe did so through actions, testification, and affirmation, by Allah guiding and supporting them. [ Sharh Aqida Tahawi, Shaykh Ninowi]

وهو الذي قدّر الأشياء وقضاها[ Al Fiqh Al Akbar]

He is The One who willed and decreed for all things to happen.

والقضاء والقدر والمشيئة صفاته في الأزل بلا آيف. [ Al Fiqh Al Akbar]

35- The Ruling (Qada), Decree (Qadar) and Will are eternal attributes without “how”
[modality].

23. Everything happens according to His decree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them.What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not
occur.

Al-Qadr: The Decree[ Sharh Aqida Tahawi , Shaykh Ninowi]

1. The covenant `which Allah made with Adam and his offspring’ is true.

2. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden (Al-Jannah) and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire (Jahannam). This number will neither
be increaser nor decreased.

3. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is cased to what he was created for and it is the action with which a man’s life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah.

4. The exact nature of the decree is Allah’s secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it
only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, `He is not asked about what He does but they are asked’. [al-Ambiya’ 21:23] So anyone who asks: `Why did Allah do
that?’ has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever.

5. This in sum is what those of Allah’s friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is
accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and inaccessible knowledge is not sought after.

Question : Why did Allah did nt made all humens Muslim?

I have a brotherly suggestion. Hope you will not feel bad. When ever you get these type of doubt in your mind , recite darud sherif and kalima shahadat . If we keep this in our practice [ daily 100 times] many types of doubt never come in mind.

He is not asked about what He does but they are asked’. [al-Ambiya’ 21:23] So anyone who asks: `Why did Allah do that?’ has gone against a judgement of the Book,

Hadith : Abdullah — Ibn Mas`ud — said, “The Messenger of Allah , the Truthful One, sal Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, told us:

The creation of anyone of you is gathered for forty days in his mother’s stomach as a Nutfah, then he becomes a clot for a similar period of time, then he becomes a little lump of flesh for a similar length of time. Then the angel is sent to him and he breathes the soul into it, and four things are decreed: his provision, his life-span, his deeds, and whether he will be wretched or blessed. By the One besides Whom there is no other god, one of you may do the deeds of the people of Paradise until there is no more than a forearm’s length between him and it, then the decree will overtake him and he will do the deeds of the people of Hell and thus enter Hell. And a man may do the deeds of the people of Hell until there is no more than a forearm’s length between him and it, then the decree will overtake him and he will do finally the deeds of the people of Paradise and thus enter Paradise.

[ Bukhari and Muslim]

Question 3. Can predestined change? If yes then how?

Taqdeer : 

Aqida: As per His Knowledge, He has written all good and bad as they are to happen and as it was to be done. It is not so, that we have to do as He has written, but He has written as we would to do. Thus If Allah wrote bad for a certain person, then it was because that person was to do bad. If he was to do good, then Allah would have written good for him. His writing did not force any person to do anything. This is known as Taqdeer. 

The Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said that one who rejects Taqdeer is like the fire worshippers in this nation. 

Here the issue of Taqdeer is being discussed. Many people commit sins and say that it is because it is in their Taqdeer and because Allah has written it to be so. This is incorrect. Allah with His self knowledge knew that they were going to sin, so He wrote that which they were to do. It is not so that His writing has forced them to sin. An Example without comparison is being present for the purpose of understanding. A five year old boy stands in front of a bus. He says to his brother, ‘I am going to pick up this bus.’ His brother says, ‘You will not pick it up.’ The boy tries, but he does not pick it up. 

The brother knew that the boy would not pick up it, thus, because of his knowing this, he said that the boy would not be able to pick up the bus. Was the boy unable to pick up the bus because his brother said that he would not be able, to do so? Definitely not. 

You can now realise that whatever we will do, Allah has knowledge of it. Allah recorded this knowledge on the sacred Tablet and this is Taqdeer

Fate has been divided into three types by scholars , for the purpose of explaination , as many people get dounts on this topic.

From Bahaar e shariat by Allama Amjed ali qadri ( rh) , khalifah of Imam Ahmed Raza Khan (rh)

(a). Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi: refers to inevitable fate and is not changeable.

Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi can not be changed. If the Pious servants of Allah intend to intercede in these issues, then their thoughts are diverted from such issues. When the Angels descended upon the nation of Lut (alaihis salaam) with punishment,? Hazrat Ibraheem (alaihis salaam) who was very merciful, as even his name Ibraheem means ‘merciful father’, began to present the case of these infidels in the Court of Allah. Almighty Allah says, “He began to protest with us about the nation of Lut”

In this verse, the Holy Quran has refuted those irreligious people who say that the Most Pious servants of Allah have no say in His Exalted Court. In this verse, Almighty Allah refutes their false beliefs by showing that they verily have great right to be heard in His Court, for He says that Hazrat Ibraheem (alaihis salaam) began to protest about the nation of Lut (alaihis salaam). It is in the Hadith Shareef that on the night of Me’raaj, Huzoor (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) heard the voice of someone speaking in a very loud and audible manner to Almighty Allah. The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked Jibraeel (alaihis salaam) about who this was and he replied that it was Hazrat Moosa (alaihis salaam). The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Does he speak to his Rub in such a high pitched voice?” and Hazrat Jibraeel (alaihis salaam) said, “His Rub is aware of his intense nature.” When Almighty Allah revealed the verse, “Verily it is near that Your Lord may give you so abundantly that you shall be pleased (satisfied)”, the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, “I will not be pleased if even one of my Ummati remains in the fire of Hell.” It is stated in the Hadith Shareef concerning a child of miscarriage, that on the day of Qiyaamah the child will demand for the forgiveness of his parents with Allah in such a way that a creditor demands from one who owes him, until Almighty Allah will say, “O child of miscarriage! O you who is demanding (quarrelling) with his Lord! Take your parents by the hand and lead them into Jannat. 

Almighty Allah addressed Hazrat Ibraheem (alaihis salaam) by saying, “O Ibraheem! Do not enter this thought, for verily the punishment is to descend upon them.” This is an example of Mubram‑e‑Haqeeqi.

Mu’allaq Mahz: refers to that which is evidently pending the books of the Angels and can be changed.?

Muallaq items refer to those items of Taqdeer which can be reached by most Awliyah Allah. Through their duas and through their striving, it can be alleviated. It is concerning this that Huzoor Ghaus‑e‑Azam (radi Allahu anhu) says, “I can cause Qaza‑e‑Mubram to be alleviated.” It is in the Hadith Shareef, “Verily Dua alleviates Qaza‑e‑Mubram.

© Mu’allaq Shabi Ba Mubram :refers to that which is not evidently shown to be pending in the books of the Angels, but it is in the Knowledge of Allah, that it is a pending situation (can be changed for example through the duas of Allah’s chosen servants).

Recommended reading;DIVINE DECREe And PREDESTINATION ثَلْجُ الصَّدْرِ لِإِيْمَانِ الْقَدْرِ ( written in 1325 AH) by Imam Ahmad Rida Khan Breillvi[ Rahimullah]

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