REFORMER SAYYID QUTB IN HIS BOOK SOCIAL JUSTICE IN ISLAM WANTS TO UNITE ISLAM (ANTI-MADHHAB IDEAS)
Sayyid Qutb’s another book Al-adalatu ‘l-ijtima’iyyatu fi ‘l-Islam (Social Justice in Islam) has been translated from Arabic into Turkish and has been pushed in front of the youngsters. In this book, Sayyid Qutb, whom the translators praise so much, stripped his mask off his face completely and exhibited clearly that he was an anti-madhhabite heretic. The following passages from this book show that he understood nothing from the writings of Islamic scholars:
“Who could assure us that an order which Islam brought in a century is applicable in all the following centuries despite so many conditions that have changed in comparison to that century?” (Page 27)
He wanted Islam’s basis to change in every century. He supposed that we ignorant people could change Islam as we wished. He could not understand the fact that we, who are not mujtahids but muqallids, could not lay our hands upon or speak ill of Islamic knowledge. Islamic knowledge has two divisions: religious knowledge and scientific knowledge. Religious knowledge which is stated openly in the Qur’an and the Hadith cannot be changed by the great scholars who are mujtahids, either. Besides, there is no great scholar who is in the grade of ijtihad today. Though it is permissible to change those parts of religious knowledge such as buying and selling, betrothal and punishments according to social usages and customs, this has some conditions. It is not permissible to change them outside the conditions laid by Islam. By changing Islam, Sayyid Qutb wanted to bring French and socialistic laws in place of Allahu ta’ala’s commands. As a matter of fact, these wishes of his have been quoted and refuted in the preceding paragraphs.
“Islam is a whole. Its separated parts should be united, and the differences should be removed.” (Page 35)
Religious knowledge in Islam is divided into two sections:
1) Facts that are to be believed through the heart.
2) Things that are to be done by the heart or the body.
The knowledge to be believed through the heart is certainly a whole and was declared by Rasulullah (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) and conveyed by as-Sahabat al-kiram. Learning this knowledge from them, the Ahl as-Sunnat scholars wrote this knowledge in their books. All Muslims have to read these books and unite in the same one iman. Muslims should unite, and there should not be disagreement or faction. For achieving this, all Muslims should unite in the belief of Ahl as-Sunnat, which is the only right path, and they should not deviate into the heretical groups predicted by our Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam). There cannot be another way for unity. It was necessary also for Sayyid Qutb to learn this knowledge of iman and not to spread the absurd heresies born from his head and from the head of his famous freemason master, Muhammad ‘Abduh, under the name of religious knowledge and not to cause faction. But, with his above-quoted writing, Sayyid Qutb attacked the four true madhhabs. He wanted the madhhabs to be abolished and a false Islam to be made up. Also, all of such anti-madhhabite people as Jamal ad-din al-Afghani, ‘Abduh and Mawdudi and the zindiqs such as Qadiani (Ahmadi) and Bahai have been on the same path. As our Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) declared, the four madhhabs into which Ahl as-Sunnat parted are Allahu ta’ala’s compassion, and as he commanded, the mujtahids had to perform ijtihad. But heretics have wanted the madhhabs to be abolished and a new religion, a collection of the laws of Christians, Jews and communists, to be made up. In order to deceive Muslims, they call this new religion “Islam” for the time being.
Allahu ta’ala has not revealed openly and definitely all the teachings pertaining to ‘Ibadat, marriage, trade and human rights. He willed those teachings which were not detailed or clear to be explained by the Prophet Muhammad (sall-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). And His Prophet explained them but not completely, leaving those teachings he did not clarify to be explained and applied to daily events by the ‘ulama’ who were mujtahids. While these ‘ulama’ did this duty, some differences arose among them. Thus the madhahib came forth. In carrying out his ‘ibadat, every Muslim chooses and follows the madhhab which is suitable and easy for his countrys’s social usages and customs, climate and his physical abilities. Existence of different madhhabs is a blessing and easiness for Muslims.
“Proprietorship can be established only with the confirmation and the prearrangement of the shari’ (legislator). This right is something which the shari, who is sort of the public’s representative, has specially put into the individual’s possession.” (Page 156)
It is true that possession becomes one’s possession with the permission of the shari’, but the shari’ (Maker of Islam) is Allahu ta’ala Himself, that is, He is the One who orders and forbids. Muballigh (Messenger) who revealed Islam was His Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam). Not only possession but also every right has been a right because Allahu ta’ala has permitted it. Each person’s possessions and rights have become possessions and rights because Allahu ta’ala has permitted and ordered them. It is for this reason that nobody can take away one’s possessions unless one gives them willingly.
“It is extravagance and haram to build magnificent villas by spending millions of dollars in a country where millions of people are in need of simple dwellings and clothes.” (Page 185)
It is never haram for a person who gives his zakat to the poor and who earns through halal with the sweat of his brow to have villas built. It is halal and blessed. It is haram to sit idly, not to work and to remain poor, or to give one’s earnings for what are haram and then live in a simple dwelling. Why should the strenuous people be guilty because of lazy people who waste their possessions on the things that are haram? It is halal for those who give their zakat to live in villas, to dress smartly and to utilize all the facilities found out by science. Allahu ta’ala declares,
“I like My human creatures to use the blessings which I have given them,” and “I will give the one who works.” It is worship to work and earn. It is not a sin to be rich. Allahu ta’ala likes those rich people who thank Him. It is haram to be conceited and to consider oneself superior to others because one is rich. It is written in Qisas-i anbiya’: “Hadrat Zubair ibn Awwam (radi-Allahu ‘anh)- one of al-Asharat al-Mubashshara, the ten people who were given the good news that they would go to Paradise, was a merchant. He became very rich, owning much
property and vast areas of land in Medina, Basra, Kufa and in Egypt. He had a thousand servants, but he used to distribute all his income to the poor. Also Hadrat Talha (radi-Allahu ‘anh), another one of those who were given the good news of Paradise, was rich. He used to dress smartly and go about with beautiful suits on him. There was a precious ruby stone on his ring. Also Hadrat ‘Uthman (radi-Allahu ‘anh) among al-Asharat al-mubashshara, was a very rich merchant. By contributing ten thousand gold coins and so many camels loaded with goods to the Ghaza of Tabuk, he attained Rasulullah’s (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) prayers.
“Richness is not an imperfection. The hadith ash-Sharif, ‘It is happiness to be rich at the last ages of the world,’ is written in Ramuz al-ahadith. Such prophets as Ibrahim, Dawud and Sulaiman (‘alaihimu ‘s-salam) were very rich. Many of he poor among as-Sahabat al-kiram were reported to have said, ‘The rich, in addition to worshiping as much as we do, are earning much thawab by performing charitable deeds with their wealth,’ thus longing for the situation in which the rich who thanked Allahu ta’ala in this way were.”
“Caliphate, after the four caliphs, turned into kingship which is passed from the father over to the son by way of inheritance. Public property was made mubah (permitted) for the relatives and sycophants of these persons and haram for meritorious people who were adherent to Islam. Umayyad’s coming into power was harmful. Had Hadrat ‘Umar remained in caliphate a couple of years more, or had Hadrat ‘Ali been the third caliph, or had Hadrat ‘Uthman been twenty-five years younger than he was when he came into power, the face of Islamic history would have been rather different. Hadrat ‘Umar used to take away from the rich what was more than they needed of their possessions and distribute them to the poor equally.” (Page 247)
With these writings of his, he misrepresents Hadrat ‘Uthman (radi-Allahu ‘anh) as incapable in administration. The hadiths telling about his superiority in administration and policy are as many as to be said to be innumerable. Let us also quote he most famous one of them here: “The highest of my companions is Abu Bakr. Then comes ‘Umar. Then comes ‘Uthman. Then comes ‘Ali (radi-Allahu ‘anhuma).” The superiority in the Hadith is a superiority in every respect. In Hudaibiya, at such a dangerous time as the enemy was making preparations for war, our Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) chose Hadrat ‘Uthman (radi-Allahu ‘anh) as the ambassador so that he would talk to the enemy and make an agreement. He was among the six persons whom Hadrat ‘Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anh), when he was about to pass away, considered as being worthy and capable of becoming the Caliph after him. Our Prophet (‘alaihi ‘s-salam) declared, “Allahu ta’ala has put the true word on ‘Umar’s tongue.” ‘Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anh), who always spoke correctly and appropriately as noted in the hadith, recommended him by saying, ”
‘Uthman is worthy and capable of becoming the Caliph.” But Sayyid Qutb said, “No, he was not worthy of it. Islam’s progress came to a standstill because of him.” His administrative, political and military accomplishments when he was the Caliph are portrayed in detail in the Turkish book Hak Sozun Vesikalari.
Sayyid Qutb’s likening Islamic caliphs to the kings of unbelievers and saying that they prohibited meritorious people who were adherent to Islam from public property is another slander against Islamic caliphs. I have given its answer detailedly in the forty-fourth paragraph. Pages of reasonably written histories and of the books of Islamic scholars are full with writings refuting these slanders of his.
“With a comparison to Hadrat ‘Umar’s disposal of prohibiting al-muallafat al-qulub from being given zakat, we can do some similar disposal of the expenditures of zakat. We may, instead of giving them in cash or in gold, establish factories and industrial foundations for them. We can buy shares for them in some foundations and institutions. Thus they will be provided with a continual source of food and income far from the meaning of a temporary gifting, which is incompatible with today’s civil requirements and which is sacrificed in vain.” (Page 298)
All as-Sahabat al-kiram were profound scholars, mujtahids. Especially the Four Caliphs were Rasulullah’s (sall-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) counselors when he was alive and representatives after his death. It is declared in a hadith, “Hold fast to my path and, after me, to the path of the Four Caliphs! Their path is the right path.” We have to follow the unanimity of as-Sahabat al-kiram. Of the teachings which they communicated unanimously, a person who disbelieves the ones that are widespread among Muslims becomes a disbeliever.
Sayyid Qutb thinks he is a mujtahid like ‘Umar (radi-Allahu ‘anh). He attempts to change the persons whom the zakat will be given. Our religion has declared clearly to whom and how the zakat will be given. For a thousand years no scholar has attempted to change this. Our religion has also explained very well how to establish a source of income for the poor with the zakat. A Muslim who has well understood Islam will easily find out how to establish factories and industrial foundations and how to help for jihad and for pious foundations suitable with Islam with the money of zakat. The way of doing these is written in the book Endless Bliss. Islam has shown how Muslims will work in each century and the ways of utilizing the inventions of the century. There is no reason or necessity for the anti-madhhabite people such as Sayyid Qutb to attempt to change Islam.
Of the four kinds of zakat goods, the zakat of crops and animals and the zakat which is collected from importers by the zakat official called ‘ashir are taken and delivered to proper people by Muslims’ ruler. Individuals or institutions or non-Muslim governments have no right to collect these kinds of zakat or to deliver them. They cannot establish zakat banks or zakat ministry. The zakat that would be given to them will not be acceptable. A Muslim who lives under the authority of an non-Muslim government should give his any kind of zakat to one of the persons described in the Qur’an or to the person whom they have appointed to be their representative, or his own representative should give it. We should perform our worship suitably with the books of the Ahl as-Sunnat scholars. He quoted the eighth ayat of the surat an-Nisa’, “While the property of inheritance is divided, if any relatives, orphans and needy people [who are not inheritors] are present there, give them something [out of it],” and commented:
“This ayat expresses clearly that the relatives, orphans and the poor will get a share from the property of inheritance. Naturally, some changes and appropriations can be made concerning the property of inheritance. Some shares can be allotted in accordance with the state of the inheritors and the society. The ayat says, ‘If… present,’ which means ‘If ever exists.’ ” (Page 305)
Islamic scholars have said about this ayat that it was an act not commanded but deserved thawab and favor. Those scholars who said that it was a command also said that this ayat was abolished with the other ayats about inheritance that came after it. It is written in Tafsir-i Husaini, “This ayat is about those who are present there while the property of inheritance is distributed. It is good to give a little share to the onlooking orphans and poor people who are present there as alms.” Hadrat Sana’ullah ad-Dahlawi wrote in his At-tafsir al Mazhari, “While the property of inheritance is divided and distributed, something is given to the relatives, to the orphans and to the poor people present there as alms. Said ibn Jubair and Dahhak reported that this ayat was abolished when the ayat “Yusikumullah’ came. Some scholars said that it had not been abolished. Ibn ‘Abbas said that those inheritors who were wise and have reached the age of puberty would give something little from the property of inheritance to them; if the inheritors were small, their trustees or representatives would give it, or they might say that it was orphans’ property and ask pardon. As Muhammad ibn Sirin reported, ‘Ubaidat as-Salmani divided and distributed the property of inheritance of some orphans. Then he ordered them to slaughter a sheep. It was cooked and given to the persons prescribed in the ayat and they ate it. And he said, ‘If it weren’t for this ayat, I would pay for the sheep.’ It is not fard but mustahab to give something to these persons.” As it is seen, the inheritors will give as much as they want to. Nothing can be taken away from them by force. Sayyid Qutb changes the word ‘present‘ in the ayat into ‘existing at any place‘. No Islamic scholar has made such a change up to now. The person who translated this book from Arabic might have understood Sayyid Qutb’s error and tries to explain it away by saying that it is possible to take inheritance tax from the inheritors and give it to those who are not inheritors, thus changes the ayat altogether. Religious scholars declared long before that, when the ignorant would be religious authorities, nothing would remain for the Devil to do.
[Note: Modudi and Party i-e Jamat-e-islami (so called) in Pakistan is based on wrong ideology of these type of tyrants]